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EXERCISE.

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Fill up spaces with Abstract Nouns. John has a great- -to be an advocate. The tenth commandment forbids

Mesmerism seems a great

If one benefits his neighbour without any expectation of a return, he exercises Christian which shows his disinterestedness. This school is under my own sup

An adjective shows the of We must send up a

to her Majesty. The Queen's early rising and activity should put to shame the of her subjects.

Point out the Abstract Nouns above mentioned.

a noun.

ON THE NUMBER OF NOUNS.

RULE I.

The most common or usual mode of making a noun plural is by adding s to the singular, as Boy, boys.

All nouns have number ;-you must know
The Singular from Plural now,
And I will show you

this.
The singular means one, not more ;
The plural's two or fifty score ;
And plural oft has s.
A boy, a man, a slate, a book,
A top, a ball, or fishing-hook,
Are singular. Quite so.
But boys, slates, books, hooks, e'er so small,
With little difference in them all, --
Just s-are plural now.

EXERCISE.

Make the following Nouns plural. Farm, boot, colour, desk, head, bead, churn, purse, railway, steam-boat, raisin, orange, fruit, dog, cat, scent, medicine, song, bottle, gum, friend, mountain.

RULE II.

Nouns ending with s, sh, ch, x, or o, are made plural by adding es.

All words that end with s or o,
S-h, c-h, s-s, you know,
When plural add ems.
For hero, heroes ; fox, make foxes ;
Misses, churches, brushes, watches ;
You must remember this.

EXERCISE.

Negro, hiss, fox, porch, dux, potato, torch, flash, crutch, box, witch, match, brush, bravado, scratch, kiss, dish, thrush, folio, inch, sash, dash.

RULE III.

All nouns that end in f or fe change for fe into ves,

f as Loaf, loaves.

A loaf's made loaves, a life's made lives ;
The plural of a wife is wives ;
F-e's made v-e-S.
Not always, though ; for there is cuff,
Or gulf, scarf, handkerchief, or ruff;
To these is added s.

EXERCISE.

Leaf, thief, sheaf, calf, wife, half, shelf, knife, life, loaf.

EXCEPTIONS.

Muff, stuff, rebuff, fife, turf, staff, surf, mischief.

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When there's a vowel before the y,
Then never change the

у

to i,
But merely add an s.
Thus toy-now what's before the y?
A vowel—a little 0-I spy.
Then toy is toys-yes ! yes !

EXERCISE.

Gallery-family-sky-way-fly-boy-countrynosegay-duty-story-day-beauty-pony-crykey-copy — quay — absurdity-strawberry-bey

=– gooseberry-valley.

B

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Some nouns are the same whether used in the plural or the singular number: sheep, salmon, deer, swine, cod. A before each expresses one, as, a sheep, a salmon, a deer, &c.

EXERCISE.

Various kinds of Nouns. Tell to what class each belongs, and change them into the plural number, thus :-Sloth, an abstract noun; singular. Make it plural. It has no plural. Why do you call it abstract ? Because it has no substance.

Goodness, man, sky, pen, child, clock, wafer, gayety, assembly, crutch, crowd, writing, niece, fork, commandment, clergy, whip, loaf, a sheep, molasses, Thomas, spectacles, Sicily, infringement, Naples, tower, fox, foot-man, pocket-book, reading, key, dunce, pony, mouse, goose.

ON THE GENDER OF NOUNS.

NOUNS HAVE GENDER AS WELL AS NUMBER.

the sexes.

What is gender? Gender means the difference of

How many sexes are there? Two_the male and female sexes. Then what gender do we call the male sex?

Masculine gender. And what is the gender for the female sex? Feminine. What sex is poker? No sex. Then what gender is it? No gender—but to distinguish it from masculine and feminine we call it neuter—which means neither the one nor the other.

GENDER.

When I'm addressing boys and girls,
With little coats or pretty curls,
I call you all to me.
If to a boy-what a mistake
In sex or gender would I make,
If I said she for he.

EXAMPLES.

She

Feminine.
Jemima, Jessie,
Jane, Joannah,

He
Williamina, Frances,
Mary, Margaret.

Masculine.
John, James,
Harry, Henry,
Robert, Andrew,
David, Hugh.

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