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M. All verbs must have a nom'native,

A noun or pronoun, you perceive,
These we call subjects, too.
The subject's who the verb's about,
You'll understand it soon, no doubt,

Though rather hard for you.
M. Poor David Doyle looked very ill,

And David Doyle's complaining still;
Ch. But David Doyle - who's he ?
M. He is the subject spoken of,

In other words—the nominative

Of looked. Now don't you see?
Ch. I am not quite so sure of that,

Pray tell me something Pat did. M. What?
Pat Patrick, simple boy?
Pat rode last night upon a stool,
Pat looked so like a little fool,
He did us all annoy.
Pat tossed and tumbled on the floor,
At last he rumbled to the door,
And made a mighty noise.
He feigned that he grew mad and lame,
At length Pat to his senses came,
And played with Harry's toys.
Now Pat or he's the nom’native,
And subjects, too, you may believe ;
Well! Pat did something do.
Then all he did are verbs you see,
The subjects of them all were he,
And Patty Patrick, too.

said no.

Insert a subject in the following spaces, and let it be a pronoun:

asked Papa for a new coat.

hope mamma will go to Ireland. returns on Saturday. stays too long all happiness.

can only stay a very short time. says he loves Fanny. believes him. comforts her.

wish you

THE OBJECT OF THE VERB OR OBJECTIVE CASE.

Some kinds of verbs have objects too,
As well as subjects (that's quite true),
Entirely different though:
Yet much depends on how they stand,
But gener'lly they're quite at hand-
Tom tumbled so and so.

Now, 80 and so's the object here.
It might be milk or table-beer,
Or any other thing .
That thing, whate'er the object was,
Is the objective case—because
It got the tumbling.

M. John led and fed the horse last night.
Ch. Horse is objective. M. Now that's right-
Ch. And John's the subject ? M. Yes !

But if it were, The horse led John-
No, no !-how could they get along?
Still horse the subject is.

M. Now, since you know objective case,

We'll try who'll get up dux for this,

The medal, too, she'll have.
Ch. I'll try for it, indeed I'll try-

And I'll try too, and so will I,
M. Hush! now you must not laugh!

case.

Papa loves *

.

Insert objects in the following spaces in the objective Pronouns they must be :

I hear

This smell refreshes Arrowroot nourishes

This book pleases Jemima does not like

That magnificent bonnet becomes

Cloaks cover Helen dressed

Insert nouns as objects now, and remember that all nouns in that position are said to be in the objective case, thus:

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Helen dressed

Rats dislike

Dogs kill I hurt

poor Roger broke my new scent Papa loves Jane amused

We accepted The thunder frightened dear little

When a pronoun is used as the subject of a verb, you

have been told before that it must always be in the nominative case, as well as the noun for which it stands. Thus—I walk, thou walkest, he walks, she walks, we walk, you walk, they walk.

* The teacher here says, Papa loves some object or other. What or who is it? Let the pupil answer. If she says, shootingno! no! The object must be a Pronoun. You or me, or him or her, &c.

Repeat the Personal Nominatives:

or it.

I, thou, he, we, you, they, or, instead of he, say she,

Now, when these pronouns are used as objects behind the verb, they must be changed into the objective

case, thus:

SUBJECTS TO THE VERB.

SAME PRONOUNS AS OBJECTS. Subject is used in the nomina- Same pronouns are made objective case.

tive when used as the object. I love James.

He loves me. I teach you.

You teach me. Thou forgivest me. I forgive thee. He pleases you.

You please him. They chastise us.

We chastise them. We leave them.

They leave us.

Insert pronouns in the objective case.

I admire him.
They affect us.
We condemn him.
She gratifies you.
They entangle him.
He instructs her.
It employs me.

He admires
We affect
He condemns
You gratify
He entangles
She instructs
They employ

The subject or nominative to a verb is often at some distance from the verb.*

EXAMPLES.

common.

JERUSALEM, ONCE PROSPEROUS AND POPULOUS, LOOKS DESOLATE. Point out the verb in that sentence. Looks. What looks desolate ? Jerusalem. Then where the subject or nominative of the verb looks ? Jerusalem. The Jews, once highly favoured, lie under a curse. Railways, at one time so seldom seen, are now quite

Queen Victoria, our own lawful sovereign, married Prince Albert. Gold, the most valuable of all metals, abounds in Australia and California. Salt, a most useful commodity, is dug out of mines in Poland. Nutmegs, so rare to us, are abundant in the Spice Isles. The Dutch, who monopolize the sale of them, destroy cart-loads of nutmegs, in order to keep them scarce. Quinine, that valuable tonic, produces an appetite. Peruvian bark, from which it is obtained, grows in Peru. Opium, so dangerous, yet serviceable, is extracted from the juice of poppies.

POSSESSIVE CASE. Having learned the possessive personal pronouns, mine, thine, bis, hers, its own, ours, yours, theirs, we

* In looking over each sentence, the teacher will point out the verb, or assist the pupil to find it. Then read over the sentence when the verb is found, and in order to find the subject, or nominative to the verb, ask who or what did so ?

+ The verb “ To BE,” is studiously withheld till those rules now used in pointing out the Nominative and Objective Case are more thoroughly understood.

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