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PART SECOND.

Verbs have Voices, Moods, Tenses, Numbers, and Persons. There are two Voices, the Active and Passive. The Active expresses action done to another, as, John shot a hare. Passive expresses action suffered, as, The hare was killed. Active verbs are either TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE.

a

THE TRANSITIVE VERB.

The active, transitive by name,
Is active--or what means the same,
Is active-transitive;
I
pass

this book from me to you;
Now transitive just means that too-
Passing Do you perceive ?

It goes from subject to the object :
John flung a ball, devised a project,
Or Peter bled his nose.
I'll put a verb between two things-
Jane's finger holds these golden rings,
The transitive this shows.

John stroked the dog which killed the hare,
He

gave him food and placed him there,
The dog tore all his plaid ;
Yet wagged his tail, and licked his hand,
As if to make him understand
He willingly obeyed.

B

EXERCISE.

A subject and object being given in the following sentences, the pupil must insert an active-transitive verb in the

spaces :

me.

Jane

I John. You mamma. Thunder me. Tarts

me.

James us. He

a prize. Andrew a reward. Jessie him a purse.

papa ? Kindness love. Mr. Caird the gospel. Mr. Landsborough

a book.

Dr. Buchanan the infirmary.

Don't you

EXERCISE.

The subject and transitive verb given, insert an object in the following spaces :

Mrs. Lovechild made

for the children. Harry cut my but he was very sorry.

Henrietta wrote a

Father Gavazzi delivered a Drunkards destroy their — Good children love their India produces

England exports

EXERCISE.

The Verb and Object being given, a Subject or Nominative must be inserted in the spaces.

weave Brussels carpets. make silver boxes. polishes metal tea-pots. The tans

leather. sell sweetmeats.

manufactures broadcloth.

enlightens the ignorant mind. nourishes the body.

left his snuff-box this morning.

heals a wound.

INTRANSITIVE VERB.

'Tis somewhat like a transitive-
It may have action, you'll perceive,
Which is confin’d to self.
Thus, Charles dances, sings, and sleeps,
He jumps and capers, runs and leaps,
But does all to himself.

These verbs have subjects, you will find,
But there's no object put behind
A verb intransitive.
Jane sleeps serenely, looks sincere,
Are followed by an adverb here
And by an adjective.

Sometimes it has a preposition-
Thus, Bill died from an operation,
And Tom fell by a blow.
These children play at football there,
They run down here, then whirl through air.
Will

you sit with me? No!

EXERCISE.

Insert Intransitive Verbs in spaces.

James
hurriedly. Jessie

sweetly. The wind frightfully. The horse

magnificently. He beautifully. She prettily. The soul high. Mary

rapidly. The squatter freely. Annie

fondly on me. Fruit in summer. Steamboats by steam. The stream - over the garden. Tom through the opening in the hedge. Annabella

in the omnibus. Jessie with her. I - hard.

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

9

The same Verb

may

be used either Transitively or Intransitively.

Some verbs are either one or other,
“ The fire did burn my little brother”.
“ That patent torch burns bright."
The first burn is a transitive,
It has an object you perceive-
My brother--that is right.

The second burn, burns in the torch,
Burns in itselfit will not scorch,
Then 'tis intransitive.
It does not pass to any object.
(That you may understand this subject,
Examples I will give.)

Intransitive.

Transitive. Bell recovered slowly.

Bill recovered the money. Fruit ripens by heat. Heat ripens the fruit. The steel rusted from damp. Damp rusts metal. His wrath cooled quickly. His kindness cooled my Water boils by heat.

wrath. John ran to me.

The cook boiled the He dismounted from the potatoes. horse.

He ran a race too. The ship floated nicely. He dismounted my brother. It floats over the waves. They floated the ship.

THE MOOD OR MODE.

The INDICATIVE Mood simply declares a thing.

*Verb's Voices you have understood,
Now you must learn the Mode or Mood-
First's called INDICATIVE.
It is a simple declaration,
And may be an interrogation,
As where does Fanny live?

THE POTENTIAL MOOD.

The Potential Mood implies power, possibility, liberty, compulsion, will, or obligation.

* The Passive Voice will be explained after the verb To BE, being so closely connected with that verb.

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