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Characteristic Features of Macroscopic Systems
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absolute temperature absorbed accessible approximation assume atoms average Avogadro's calculate classical collision Consider constant container corresponding cules denote discussion distribution ensemble entropy equal equilibrium situation equipartition theorem example exchange energy expression external parameters fluctuations function given heat capacity heat Q heat reservoir Hence ideal gas initial internal energy interval isolated system kinetic energy large number left half liquid ln Q macroscopic parameters macroscopic system macrostate magnetic field magnetic moment magnitude mass mean energy mean number mean pressure mean value measured mechanics mole molecular momentum number of molecules occur oscillator particle particular partition phase space piston position possible values Prob quantity quantum numbers quasi-static random relation result simply solid specific heat spin system statistical statistical ensemble statistically independent Suppose thermal contact thermal interaction thermally insulated thermometer tion total energy total magnetic total number unit volume velocity