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In Scotland, there were many, who, “foreseeing that Ireland must be the stage to act upon, it being unsettled, and many forfeited lands therein altogether wasted, proceeded to push for fortunes in that kingdom.”* The Puritans of England, with their brethren in America, exclaimed, “ Cursed be he that holdeth back his sword from blood! yea, cursed be he that maketh not his sword drunk with Irish blood!” †

In this spirit the plantation of the northern lands was undertaken by the Scotch; in this spirit war was made by the Puritans. It may be conjectured how the natives were to fare at the hands of both.

Charles's licentious court and excessive taxation gave his enemies texts enough for seditious sermons. From his accession till his forced flight from London to throw himself on the country, he was unhappy in his favorites, his measures, and his temper. The ship money and the property tax, though not the causes, were the fuel of the faction which, in truth, began with the Puritan preachers. The king, as head of the church and patron of the bishops, was from the first their chief target, and their followers were only logical in extending hostility to his temporal, as included in his spiritual supremacy. The Irish Catholic leaders saw clearly into the king's dangers, and when we find them overlooking his duplicity, excusing his dishonor, and going three fourths of the way to

broken covenants with him, we should remember that they did not yield so much from servility as because, at bottom, his cause was their own. His deliverance was their hope, as his prostration would inevitably let in the accumulated Puritan deluge upon them and their people.

Events in England hurried rapidly on; the controversy between the king and his Parliament was daily becom

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* The Simple Cobbler of Agawam, in America. London reprint, 1647. This work was written by Rev. Nathaniel Ward, pastor of Agawam, near Plymouth, Massachusetts. Ward also drew the first charter of that colony He returned to England, and died there in 1653.

† Montgomery Manuscript, quoted in McNevin's Confiscation of Ulster.

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ing more imbittered, and Irish affairs more frequent subjects of debate. In 1642, the king suddenly fled from London, and sent his heir and queen, for safety, to Holland. The Parliament proceeded to raise an army, and to remodel the Reformed Church on Puritan principles. Presbyterianism, recognized as the church of Scotland in 1580, was now declared to be the church of England.

In June, 1643, the Westminster Assembly of Divines met in Henry VII.'s Chapel. The parliamentary ordinance had summoned one hundred and fifty-one persons by name to this convocation - - ten lords and twenty commoners, one hundred and twenty-one divines. Scot. land was represented by four divines and two laymen; from Ireland, Archbishop Usher and “Joshua Hoyle, D. D.," of Dublin, were invited. Neither of these persons answered the summons. For four years this assembly sat, and besides “the Westminster Confession of Faith," it originated “the solemn league and covenant,” which was ratified by the English Parliament in 1643, and the Scotch Parliament in 1644.* This memorable treaty bound its signers to attempt “the reformation and defence of religion, the honor and happiness of the king, and the peace and safety of the three kingdoms of Scotland, England, and Ireland;" “ the preservation of the reformed religion in the church of Scotland ;” to endeavor “ to bring the churches of God in the three kingdoms to the nearest conjunction and uniformity in religion;" and " in like manner, without respect of persons, (to) endeavor the extirpation of Popery, prelacy, superstition, heresy, schism, profaneness," " in the three kingdoms.” † Further, “ to endeavor the discovery of all such as have been, of shall be, incendiaries, malignants, or evil instruments by hindering the reformation of religion, dividing the king from his people, or one of the kingdoms from one another" -- that is, all Irish Catholics, lay and clerical, were to be so “discovered” and brought "to condign punishment.” “And this covenant we make” so it

* King Charles II. was constrained, when in custody of the Scottish Covenanters, to sign “the solemn league at Spey, June 23, 1650, and again to re-sign it at Scone, January 1, 1651. + Hetherington's History of the Westminster Assembly, p. 118.

concluded " in the presence of Almighty God, the searcher of all hearts, with a true intention to perform the same, as we shall answer at that great day when the secrets of all hearts shall be disclosed; most humbly beseeching the Lord to strengthen us by his Holy Spirit for this end, and to bless our desires and proceedings with such success as may be deliverance and safety to his people.” Such was the declaration of war against Catholics, issued by the learned Assembly of Westminster, and confirmed by the two Parliaments of England and Scotland. Under this covenant the united forces of Britain were to march against all who could not call God to witness their adoption of “the solemn league and covenant."

Charles I., as soon as the covenant appeared, issued his condemnation of it; all the reformed prelates, of course, did likewise; but the Presbyterians, Independents, and Brownists, of the Long Parliament, armed in its defence, and their Scottish colleagues did likewise. Then came the civil war; the king a-field, and the rebels in possession of the capital; Strafford beheaded, and Cromwell lieutenant general of the army.

CHAPTER VI.

THE PRESBYTERIANS AND PURITANS IN IRELAND. - EXTERMINA.

TION THEIR POLICY.- ULSTER RISING OF 1641.- NEW CATHOLIC CONFEDERACY FOUNDED BY RORY O'MOORE. – QATH OF CONFEDERATION.- GENERAL INSURRECTION. - CATHOLIC LEGISLATION. – PETERS AND JEROME. - OWEN ROE O'NEIL ORMOND. CROMWELL IN IRELAND. THE PURITAN PENAL LAWS. DEATH OF CROMWELL.

PRESBYTERIANISM, in Scotland, dates from 1572 - the era of Knox's Book of Discipline; in Ireland, it may be properly dated from the Montgomery plantation, in Down; that is, from 1606. Montgomery originally obtained his title to a large tract in that county from

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O'Neil; James I. confirmed it, with the proviso “ that the lands should be planted with British Protestants, and that no grant of fee farm should be made to any person of mere Irish extraction." Accordingly we find for years afterwards a steady importation of Protes-. tant tenants, Shaws, Boyds, Keiths, Maxwells, and Bayleys, all from Scotland. In the vaults of Grey Abbey, and the “stump of an old castle” at Newtown, the pioneers of this emigration had to abide until they erected fitter homesteads; the Montgomery family spent their first year in an old priory, roofed in for their service. In 1609, on the plea of a plot, which was never proved to exist, the six counties of Ulster were declared to be vested in the crown, and by the crown, in a subsequent proclamation, were offered to adventurers well affected in religion." The rules of the plantation were simply four: -

" I. That the proportion of land to be distributed to “ undertakers may be of three different quantities. The “ first and least may consist of so many parcels of land

as will make a thousand English acres, or thereabouts ; " the second or middle proportion, of so many parcels as “ will make fifteen hundred English acres, or thereabouts ; “ the third, and greatest, of so many parcels as will make “ two thousand English acres, or thereabouts.

“ II. That all lands escheated in every county may be “ divided into four parts, whereof two parts may be di“ vided into proportions consisting of a thousand acres

apiece, a third part into proportions of fifteen hundred " acres, and the fourth part into proportions of two thou: 66 sand acres.

“ III. That every proportion be made a parish, and a “ parish church be erected thereon; and the incombents “ be endowed with glebes of several quantities, viz.. An “ incumbent of a parish of a thousand acres to have “ sixty acres, of a parish of fifteen hundred acres to have

ninety acres, and of a parish of two thousand acres to “ have one hundred and twenty acres; and that the “ whole tithes, and the duties of every parish, be allotted “ to every incumbent, besides the glebes aforesaid.

66 IV. That the undertakers of these lands be of sey“ eral sorts - first, English and Scottish, who are to

may take

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“ plant their proportions with English and Scottish ten"ants; second, servitors in Ireland, who

English or Irish tenants at their choice; third, natives “ of those counties, who are to be freeholders.

“ Following these four general principles of division " were special directions for each county, based upon of their relative statistics. But, before stating these “ special directions, it will be well to consider those ap“ plicable to the whole scheme of the plantation.

" In each county, the authors of this project divided " the lands escheated into two divisions, one the portion “ of the church, and the other the portion of the under" takers. The first was composed of termon, monas“tery, and mensall or dernesne lands; the second, of 6 the escheated territories of the late traitors.'"*

The established clergy was thus provided for by the king, while the Presbyterian laity were enriched by the same despotic exercise of power. These latter naturally organized their presbyteries on the Scottish plan, and imported their ministers from Scotland. For some time the connection was intimate and cordial; but after a generation or two, “ the church of Scotland” ceased to control “ the church of Ulster," and there was not a believer or elder left who considered himself bound by the decrees of the General Assembly of Scotland.

While this new form of Protestantism was expanding in the north, the “recusant” Catholics were again trying the Parliament to secede, a second time, in 1623. This time they did not return; but each one, sullen or active according to his humor, agitated for resistance or remained quietly on his estate. The common people were

* The actual division throughout Ulster may be judged from this sample: “ Tyrowen contained of .available land, including the ecclesiastical possessions, 1571 ballyboes, or 98,187 acres ; Coleraine, otherwise O’Cahan's country, contained 547 ballyboes, or 34,187 acres, of which the Bishop of Derry claimed termon lands to the amount of 6343 acres ; Donegal contained 110,700 acres, of which 9000 acres were claimed as termon lands; Fermanagh, commonly called McGwire's country, contained 1070 tathes, or 33,437 acres, with 46 islands; Cavan, O'Reilly's country, contained 620 polls, or 40,500 acres; and Armagh contained 77,800 acres, of which the primate's share was to be 2400 acres, and the in. cumbents' glebes were to enjoy 4650 acres.”

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