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as devoted as ever to their old faith and pastors. A thousand clergymen still remained in the country, secretly or openly, while as many more, from the colleges of France, Spain, and Italy, waited but opportunities to return.

A man was wanting to combine and give heart to the dispersed believers. This man appeared in Roger, or Rory, O'Moore, the heir of a line of brave ancestors; whose father and grandfather had both died in defence of the church and country. Carried into Spain when a child, he returned soon after Charles's accession. Educated in all the science of that age, with the son of Hugh O'Neil as his friend and fellow-student, he grew in patriotism as in years.* His favorite project was to unite the Milesian and Norman Catholics in one holy brotherhood. To this end he gave up his natural right to the lands of Leix, and with his brother Lysagh, made a home at Ballynagh, “ near the Boyne.” He rode from castle to castle, reasoning and exhorting with men of various minds. So clearly did the people understand his labors, that this was their watchword 66 Our trust is in God and our Lady and Rory O'Moore.” He was equally successful with the noble in his hall and the farmer in his bawn. Who, indeed, could resist this self-denying man, as he begged the very holders of his own acres to unite with him for their joint preservation? “ my lands,” said he, “but help me to preserve our altars." He renounced with all solemnity just claims to a restoration of his estates, and urged only unity for the common faith and common defence. Could heroism rise higher above the earth?

In 1640, O'Moore saw that his patient projects began to operate. Every remonstrance, as he expected, was a failure; the lords of the Pale were rudely repulsed from

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« Keep the castle, and ordered to quit Dublin; an intercepted letter from the Earl of Essex to the deputy, advising their transportation to the West Indies, was printed; and lastly, three hundred and eighty-five thousand acres of their land in Leinster was declared to be confiscated. Driven on by these incentives, Preston, Lord Gormanstown, on the part of the Norman aristocracy, met Roger O'Moore, on the hill of Knoc-Crofty, near Tara, and assured him of their desire for union and coöperation. This was the beginning of the second Catholic confederation.

* Young O'Neil was found strangled in his bed at Brussels ; foul play was suspected on the part of the British agents there.

ť Parnell's sketch of O'Moore is the best and briefest I have met: “ Roger O’Moore possessed all the qualities of the heroic - character, talents, promptitude, courage, and love of country ; his person was remarkably graceful, his aspect dignified, his manners courteous.” Laws, p. 113. O'Moore's daughter Anna was the mother of Patrick Sarsfield.

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On the 230 October, 1641, impatient, perhaps, of O’Moore's slower policy, Sir Phelim O'Neil appeared in arms in the north.* Appointing four captains, and dividing his forces into four divisions, he assailed simultaneously the chief garrisons of the English. Dungannon, the home of his ancestors, Strabane, Armagh, Portadown, Cavan, and Newry were before three months in his keeping. Except the posts of Derry, Coleraine, and Carrickfergus, the English retained no strongholds in Ulster. In December, the Leinster lords equipped a confederate force, and Kilkenny, Wexford, Ross, and Waterford opened their gates to Lord Mountgarrett and his subordinate officers. The last day of the same month, the Irish of Tipperary, under Philip O'Dwyer, took Cashel, and about the same time, Limerick, Clare, and the Catholics of Connaught joined in the general insurrection.

At Lurgan and Portadown, O'Neil certainly showed a revengeful and merciless spirit in refusing quarter. This conduct contrasts strongly with the clemency he exhibited at the capture of Ballaghie, where they allowed the defender, Conway, “ to march out with his men, and to carry away trunks, with plate and money, to Antrim.”

* The pretended discovery by Clotworthy's servant, O'Connally, of a general massacre of the Protestants, is admirably analyzed by Matthew Carey, of Philadelphia, to whose memory I offer my humble tribute of homage. (For this analysis, see Appendix, p. 371.) Lord Conor McGuire and Colonel Hugh McMahon were arrested in Dublin, on the 23d of October, on that scoundrel's testimony. McMahon was dreadfully racked, but made no confession ; Lord McGuire died on the scaffold, at Tyburn, in 1644, declaring his unalterable adhesion to the Catholic faith. McMahon was afterwards one of the supreme council of the Catholic confederacy. + Carte's Life of Ormond, vol. i. p. 188.

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We must remember that in this interval of a fortnight occurred the terrible massacre, on Island Magee, by the Presbyterian garrison of Carrickfergus. Upon this islet, accessible on the land side at low water, dwelt three thousand souls. On the night, some say of the 1st, some of the 6th of November, the Covenanters surrounded the island on three sides, driving the entire population, with sword and bayonet, towards the clefts of the high, rocky sea-coast. The entire population, “men, women, and children, were cruelly massacred," says Carte; some were killed on the shore, the rest drowned in the tumultuous waves of the North Channel. We hear much of Sicilian Vespers, of St. Bartholomew's day, of Albigensian massacres; but what English book mentions the slaughter of the three thousand Catholics at Island Magee?

So closed the year 1641, than which no poor year was ever more slandered. The “great Popish massacre an invention of the Puritans to inculpate the queen and her friends, to throw discredit on the king's “graces," and to justify their own military preparations. The credulity of that age, in which Oates, Bedlow, and Dangerfield were educated, was easily imposed on. Even grave historians have adopted the inventions of the Puritan broadsheets of 1641 and 1642. The Earl of Warwick sets down the number massacred at two hundred thousand souls; Sir John Temple at three hundred thousand; the historian Rapin, at one hundred and fifty-four thousand; Clarendon, at forty or fifty thousand; Milton at eighty thousand; Hume at forty thousand; Carte at twelve thousand; Dr. Warner at four thousand and twenty-eight, which “in his conscience,” he takes to be an exaggeration! Such are the discrepancies of the strictly Protestant historians. Let us consider the true basis of calculation - the then population of Ireland. In 1641, the total was but one millon four hundred and

* The tradition of Ulster relates that three of the male inhabitants only escaped, and that from them the Catholic McGees of the north of Ireland are all descended. It is a source of pride to the present writer that the blood of that martyr clan flows in his veins.

† Sir William Petty's Survey, in Dublin Society's Library. Dr. Lingard has proved that there is no mention whatever of a Protestant massaere in the state papers of 1641 !

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forty-six thousand; of which, by Protestant computation, the Protestants were as two in eleven, or two hundred and twenty-five thousand in all the four provinces. Of these fully one half lived in Dublin and other walled towns, which the English never lost, and, at most, but twenty thousand were residents in Ulster. We are told by a contemporary that six thousand, out of the single county of Fermanagh, were saved, notwithstanding that it was the county of Lord McGuire, whose recent seizure must have excited the indignation of his wide-spread clans

But why argue upon it? Whoever will examine candidly the evidence of the pretended massacre will find that it has no wide foundation. Instances of individual revenge, of unnecessary bloodshed, no doubt there were; the old proprietors, in some cases, washed out the title deeds of the Puritan farmers in their blood, and some of the inhabitants of Portadown, Monaghan, and other towns, were butchered by the conquerors; but a. general or even local

massacre never occurred. With Warner we assert, “it is easy enough to demonstrate the falsehood of the relation of every Protestant historian of the rebellion," * and with Edmund Burke, who examined, with Dr. Leland, the entire evidence, we must express our utter astonishment that writers of "pleasant histories” should yet venture to reprint the fifty times refuted lies of the Puritan broad sheets." +

During the winter of 1641, O'Moore and his coadjutors were not idle. In March, the lords of “the Pale," for the sake of peace, tried one last remonstrance, which took its name from Trim, where it was agreed on. This document recites the grievances of the body, protests their loyalty, and prays for relief. It was received by the king's commissioners, but no answer was returned. At Kells, in the same neighborhood, a provincial synod for Ulster, summoned by the primate, Hugh O'Neil, assembled. With a politic motive this synod suggested a national council, and adjourned to meet it at Kilkenny, on the 10th of May following. On the 8th of April, King Charles, in his speech to Parliament, declared that he 6 would never consent to the toleration of the Popish profession, or the abolition of the laws then in force against Popish recusants." He expressed his determination of crossing the channel personally to head the forces against “the detestable rebels.” The Puritan Parliament, however, withheld his supplies for their own reasons, and at the same time induced the Scotch Parliament to send over two thousand five hundred men, under General Monroe, who landed at Carrickfergus, on the 15th of April, one week after the king's speech was delivered.

* Warner's History of Ireland, reign of Charles I. + Prior's Life of Burke.

Under these circumstances, the Irish hierarchy assembled at Kilkenny, on the 10th of May, and proceeded to deliberate on the state of the kingdom. The archbishops of Armagh, Tuam, and Cashel, six bishops and five proxies, were present. As the only remaining estate of the Celtic constitution, as members of an order which in that age possessed throughout Europe legislative powers, and as the actual guides of the body of the people, their right to do so is indisputable. This august council issued a manifesto to the Catholics of Ireland, calling on them to confederate for the common defence. They then ordained the following basis of confederation:

“1. Whereas the war which now in Ireland the " Catholics do maintain against sectaries, and chiefly against Puritans, for the defence of the Catholic reli

gion,- for the maintenance of the prerogative and " royal rights of our gracious King Charles, — for our “ gracious queen, so unworthily abused by the Puritans,

for the honor, safety, and health of their royal issue, " — for to avert and repair the injuries done to them, “ for the conversion of the just and lawful safeguard, “ liberties, and rights of Ireland, — and, lastly, for the “ defence of their own lives, fortunes, lands, and posses, « sions ;-whereas this war is undertaken for the foresaid “ causes against unlawful usurpers, oppressors, and the “ enemies of the Catholics, chiefly Puritans, and that “ hereof we are informed, as well by divers and true re“monstrances of divers provinces, counties, and noble

men, as also by the unanimous consent and agreement

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