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and Sarsfield's. The French and English officers, De Rosen, Pusignan, Boisselleau, and Lauzan, as well as Sheldon, Hamilton, and other English or Scotch gentlemen, had high command in the new army, but not to the exclusion of native officers, where they could be obtained, and were qualified by service.

At the opening of the first campaign, in 1689, the military position each party occupied was this : All the west was in the hands of James's adherents; Ulster, Carrickfergus, Coleraine, Derry, and the fort of Culmore, were held by the “Scotch-Irish," for William; in Leinster and Munster, the principal places had declared for King James. When, therefore, William landed at Carrickfergus, the line of his first operations might be drawn from Lough Erin to the mouth of the Boyne; that is, from Enniskillen, through Cavan and Meath, to Drogheda.

Lieutenant General Hamilton, James's commander in Ulster, after beating the enemy, under Montgomery and Lundy, 'at Dromore and Cladysfort, had taken possession of Coleraine, and placed a garrison there under Colonel O'More; Charlemont was garrisoned and commanded by Captain O'Regan; Colonel Dundee abandoned Culmore, and sailed to England; and Derry had sent to propose terms, when James, on coming to the camp, refused to listen to “his rebels," and thus drove Derry to its desperate and gallant defence. The siege was undertaken without a siege train, and Derry, naturally and artificially strong, held out until the Williamite General Kirke entered the harbor with six thousand men, and abundant stores, and relieved the brave inhabitants.

After James reached Hamilton's camp, every thing went wrong. Near Dundalk, after raising the siege of Derry, he came up with Marshal Schomberg, who had got enclosed in an unfavorable position, with pestilence decimating his men. Instead of attacking him, James manæuvred, and in October went into winter quarters. On this occasion, De Rosen exclaimed, “ If your majesty had a hundred kingdoms, you would lose them all."

He sent a cavalry detachment to Cavan to dislodge four times their number, and was surprised to hear they were beaten; being told that the pass of Slane was an important place, he ordered “fifty dragoons” to be sent To towards it,” and committed a hundred other errors. Misfortunes, and the vile ingratitude of his children and nobles, had, besides, made him so irritable, that he would hear no reason till the mischief was past, and then he would blame every one but himself.

Having virtually abandoned the northern line of defence, (formed by Lough Erin, the Cavan lakes, and the Boyne,) De Rosen advised the king to fall back on the line of the Shannon as his base of operations. James rejected this advice, and prepared for another northern campaign the following spring.

In June, 1690, William, in person, took the command of his troops in Ulster, and began his march towards Dublin. James marched northward to meet him, resolved, at the wrong moment, to fight. In war, as in politics, indecision was his ruin. He again hesitated to send forward a detachment to defend the passes beyond the Boyne; and when, at last, he consented to do battle, his adversary had thirty-six thousand veterans and a powerful artillery against his twenty thousand raw recruits, six thousand French, and three or four field pieces. Against these odds, and the greater military disparity of the leaders, the battle of the Boyne was fought, and lost. On the evening of that hard-fought but sorrowful day, well might the veteran Captain O’Regan exclaim to the Williamites, “ Change kings, and we'll fight it over again!"

At the Boyne, William lost Schomberg, Caillemote, and other distinguished officers, and five thousand men. James suffered an equal loss in rank and file, three colors, and one cannon.

General Hamilton was among William's prisoners. James only remained long enough in Dublin to vent his ill humor, and appoint Tyrconnel lord lieutenant. He then proceeded in haste to Waterford, and embarked for France, to return no more.

Dublin was abandoned by the videroy as speedily as

the guns.

by the king. The line of the Shannon was fallen back upon, and Limerick and Athlone became the chief objects of attack and defence. The former successfully resisted a first siege directed by William himself, in August of this year. By a brilliant countermarch, Sarsfield surprised his siege train at Cullin, and destroyed

This obliged the raising of the siege, which was abandoned till the next year. At Athlone, General

. Douglas was also compelled to abandon the first siege.

William returned to England, and despatched Churchill, Earl of Marlborough, with additional forces and „artillery, into Munster. Cork and Kinsale were taken; but in the winter operations in Kerry and Clare, De Ginkle was defeated, with heavy loss.

The third campaign opened very differently from the first. The whole north and east of Ireland was now in William's hands, and all the resources of Holland and England at his back. From Lough Foyle to Kinsale, the eastern coast was in his keeping; and his powerful army wanted no supply necessary to soldiers. Tyrconnel and De Lausan, on James's side, had visited France for instructions, as had the agents of the Irish officers, dissatisfied with the plan of the previous campaigns. To remove all difficulties, General St. Ruth was sent by Louis and James as commander-in-chief of the army in Ireland.

The Protestant army commenced operations in June, under De Ginkle, and took by storm Ballymore and Athlone, both of which were bravely defended. On the 12th of July, both armies met at Aughrim, and again William triumphed. St. Ruth, who had refused to communicate the plan of the battle to a council of war, fell; every Irish regiment left more than half of its numbers among the dead. Galway and Sligo, alarmed at this intelligence, surrendered at discretion. Limerick was again besieged on the 5th of August; and on the 13th, the famous capitulation called “the treaty of Limerick" was agreed to by the commissioners of both armies.

Twenty-nine of the articles of this treaty related to the military. They were to have permission to emigrate to France, or to enlist with William. Almost to a man, they preferred exile to treason. With Sarsfield, four thousand five hundred sailed from Cork; with D’Usson, four thousand seven hundred and thirty-six from Limerick; with Wauchop, about three thousand from the same place. Other regiments, under their own commanders, as Burke's, Dillon's, and O'Brien's, also emigrated. In all, nineteen thousand and fifty-six fighting men arrived that year in France. They were formed into twelve French regiments, and retained their own officers, where their after career can be traced in a blaze of victory. In process of time, their exploits, as we shall see, exercised a decided influence on the fortunes of those they left behind.

Thus was dispersed the last Catholic army of Ireland, and with it the military defence of the church of St. Patrick. A century and a half of warfare closes with the fall of Limerick; the direct succession of the Catholic soldiers ends with Sarsfield. The lawyers who debated and the delegates who signed “the treaty of Limerick” are the pale forerunners of a new day and a new order. The pen, and voice, and human learning are to be the only visible defences of the church in Ireland, through many an age of trial, reserved for its faithful children.




The civil articles of the treaty of Limerick were in relation to the rights of Catholics. Art. i. guarantied them “such privileges in the exercise of their religion as are consistent with the law of Ireland, or as they enjoyed in the reign of King Charles II.;" also, this article

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undertook that “ their majesties, as soon as their affairs will permit them to summon a Parliament in this kingdom, will endeavor to procure the said Roman Catholics such further security in that particular as may preserve them from any disturbance on account of their said religion." Art. ii. guarantied pardon and protection to all who had served King James, on taking the oath of allegiance prescribed in art. ix., as follows:

“I, A. B., do solemnly promise and swear that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to their majesties, King William and Queen Mary; so help me God.”

Arts. iii., iv., V., and vi. extended the provisions of arts. i. and ii. to merchants and other classes of men. Art. vii. permits “every nobleman and gentleman compromised in the said articles to


and keep

in their houses." Art. viii. gives the right of removing goods and chattels without search. Art. ix. is as follows:

• The oath to be administered to such Roman Catholics as submit to their majesties' government shall be the oath aforesaid, and no other."

Art. x. guaranties that “no person or persons who shall, at any time hereafter, break these articles, or any of them, shall thereby make or cause any other person or persons to forfeit or lose the benefit of them.Arts. xi. and xii. relate to the ratification of the articles “ within eight months or sooner.” Art. xiii. refers to the debts of “ Colonel John Brown to several Protestants,” and arranges for their satisfaction.

On King William's part, the treaty is signed by Lord Scravenmore, Generals Mackay, Talmash, and De Ginkle, and the Lords Justices Porter and Coningsby.

On the Irish side, the signers are Sarsfield, Earl of Lucan, Viscount Galmoy, Sir Toby Butler, and Colonels Purcel, Cusack, Dillon, and Brown.

The date is October 3, 1691.*

* “And whereas the said city of Limerick hath been since, in pursuance of the said articles, surrendered unto us: Now, know ye, that we, having considered of the said articles, are graciously pleased hereby

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