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A few days after the signing of the treaty, and before the English or outer town was delivered, a French fleet entered the Shannon, “ with thirty thousand arms, one thousand men, two hundred officers, ammunition and provision;" but Irish honor was proof against the trial thus put upon it. In Dublin, the terms of the treaty were displeasing to the Puritans; but William received them with evident pleasure. De Ginkle had three earldoms given him, and a medal was struck, commemorating the event, with the motto, “ Limerica capta, Hibernia subacta, Octobris, 1691."
to declare, that we do for us, our heirs, and successors, as far as in us lies, ratify and confirm the same, and every clause, matter, and thing therein contained. And as to such parts thereof, for which an act of Parliament shall be found to be necessary, we shall recommend the same to be made good by Parliament, and shall give our royal assent to any bill or bills that shall be passed by our two houses of Parliament to that purpose. And whereas it appears unto us, that it was agreed between the parties to the said articles, that after the words Limerick, Clare, Kerry, Cork, Mayo, or any of them, in the second of the said articles; which words having been casually omitted by the writer, the articles, the words following, viz. •And all such as are under their protection in the said counties,' should be inserted, and be part of the said omission, was not discovered till after the said articles were signed, but was taken notice of before the second town was surrendered, and that vur said justices and general, or one of them, did promise that the said clause should be made good, it being within the intention of the capitulation, and inserted in the foul draft thereof : Our further will and pleasure is, and we do hereby ratify and confirm the said omitted words, viz., · And all such as are under their protection in the said counties,' hereby for us, our heirs and successors, ordaining and declaring that all and every person and persons therein concerned shall and may have, receive, and enjoy the benefit thereof, in such and the same manner as if the said words had been inserted in their proper place in the said second article, any omission, defect, or mistake in the said second article in any wise notwithstanding. Provided always, and our will and pleasure is, that these our letters patents shail be enrolled in our court of chancery, in our said kingdom of Ireland, within the space of one year next ensuing. In witness, &c., witness ourself at Westminster, the twenty-fourth day of February, anno regni regis et reginæ Gulielmi & Mariæ quarto per breve de privato sigillo. Nos autem tenorem premissor. predict. Ad requisitionem attornat. general. domini regis et dominæ reginæ pro regno Hiberniæ. Duximus exemplificand. per presentes. In cujus rei testimonium has literas nostras fieri fecimus patentes. Testibus nobis ipsis apud Westmon quinto die Aprilis, annoq. regni eorum quarto.
BRIDGES. Examinat. (S. KECK.
In Cancel. per nos, LACON WM. CHILDE.
The Catholic army once well away from the Irish shore, the sovereigns and the Parliament began to tamper with the treaty. The following year, an oath of allegiance, altogether different from that prescribed by art. ix., was enacted by Parliament, and approved by William. In this oath, the Catholic was called on to swear he did not believe “ that in the sacrament of the Lord's supper there is any transubstantiation of the elements;" “ that the invocation or adoration of the Virgin Mary, or any other saint, and the sacrifice of the mass, as they are now used in the church of Rome, are damnable and idolatrous." An "oath of abjuration” was framed in the following session, binding Catholics “to abhor, detest, and abjure, as impious and heretical, that damnable doctrine and position, that princes excommunicated or deposed by the pope, or any authority of the see of Rome, may be deposed and murdered by their subjects ;” furthermore, obliging them to swear that no foreign prince, person, or prelate “hath any jurisdiction, power, superiority, preëminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm.” Here were two flagrant violations of the second and ninth articles, and, indeed, of the whole treaty.
But bad faith did not stop even here. The Dublin Parliament, made up chiefly of bigots and mere adventurers, settled after the late war, passed an act, in 1694, “ for the confirmation of articles made at the surrender of Limerick," which actually abolished those articles altogether. This act did not recite the articles, in whole or part, but, in the words of the lords' protest, “ altered both their sense and meaning,” and left “those in whose favor they were granted in a worse position than before.” This protest was signed by the Lords Londonderry, Tyrone, and Duncannon, by the Protestant Bishops of Élphin, Derry, Clonfert, Kilala, and the Barons of Ossory, Limerick, Killaloe, Kerry, Howth, Kingston, and Strabane. Still the act passed, and received the seal and signature of William and Mary.
That ancient instrument of oppression, a commission to inquire into defective titles, shortly issued, and decreed
that 1,060,792 acres were forfeited to the crown.
This was the last fragment of the patrimony of the faithful Catholic inhabitants. When King William died, there did not remain to the class which, a century before, owned three fourths of the Irish soil, above “one sixth part" of what their grandfathers held in fee.*
The penal code of Elizabeth and the Stuarts was revived, and new and worse disabilities enacted in addition. By the 7th of William III. cap. 4, no Papist could keep a school, or teach in private families, except the children of the family; no Papist could bear arms, contrary to the express terms of art. vii. of the greaty; by the same statute, to send a child beyond seas was a felony, the case to be tried by a justice, not by a jury, and the burden of proof to fall on the accused. By the 9th William III. cap. 3, mixed marriages were forbidden, and, if either parent were a Protestant, “the children could be taken from the other to be reared in that faith.” No Papist could be a legal guardian — the court of chancery to appoint one, and educate the ward a Protestant. By the same statute, rewards were fixed for informers against the violators of those laws, the amount to "be levied on the Papist inhabitants of the county." Such was the way in which King William, of pious and immortal memory, perjured his own soul, and avenged himself on a gallant, defeated enemy.t
The condition of the Irish church at William's death was truly lamentable. In 1688 and 1689, it had received a great accession of pastors and religious from abroad. In Dublin, Limerick, and other cities, monasteries had been restored, and churches reëdified. When the military emigration took place, a few of the clergy accompanied it; but the rest remained, trusting to the treaty for protection. Between 1696 and 1699, four hundred and ninety-five secular and four hundred and twentyfour regular clergymen were banished the kingdom, and even the poor nuns had to fly. At Ypres, Lisbon, and Antwerp, they gathered themselves again into community, adding the sorrow of exile to the other mortifications of their lives. Two or three hundred of the clergy only remained, and they were hidden in “ holes and corners." The majorities of the sees were administered by vicars, and remained for years without bishops.
* Bedford's Compendious and Impartial View of the Laws affecting Roman Catholics. London, 1829, p. 15.
† In defence of the intentions of William, it has been stated that he persecuted less from zeal or temper than to propitiate the native bigotry of his new kingdom. At one time he had a proclamation prepared, and even printed, guarantying the Irish Catholics “ the free exercise of their religion, half the church establishment, and the moiety of their ancient properties.” This document, called “the secret proclamation,” was “ suppressed on the first intelligence of the treaty of Limerick."- Moore's Captain Rock, p. 118, where John Dryden is quoted, as a contemporary witness, that William “was most unwilling to persecute,” but was driven to do so by the ultra Protestants, headed by Dr. Tennison, Archbishop of Canterbury. His resistance to the bigots does not seem to have been very vigorous or protracted, and we see no good reason to relieve his memory of the odium that must attach to it on account of Ireland.
But not alone did ecclesiastics feel the practical effects of the violation of the treaty. There was still enough of property left among the Catholics to repay the labors of the new commissioners. " From the report made by the commissioners appointed by the Parliament of England in 1698,” says Lord Clare, it appears that the Irish subjects outlawed for the rebellion of 1688 amounted to 3978; and that their Irish possessions, as far as could be computed, were of the annual value of £211,623, comprising one million sixty thousand seven hundred and ninety-two acres. This fund was sold under the authority of an English act of Parliament, to defray the expenses incurred by England in reducing the rebels in 1688; and the sale introduced into Ireland a new set of adventurers."*
These new adventurers were chiefly German Protestants, whose descendants in Munster are known as “ Palatines” until this day.
We need not wonder that among the few Catholics of property mentioned in the next two reigns, scarce any (if we except Sir Toby Butler) ventured to protest against the last acts of this national perfidy.
* Lord Chancellor Clare's speech on the Union. Dublin, (pamphlety)
QUEEN ANNE'S REIGN.-"ACT TO DISCOURAGE THE GROWTH OF
POPERY." - SIR TOBY BUTLER HEARD AT THE BAR OF THE
QUEEN ANNE succeeded William in 1702. In the next year, according to the law of Poynings, “ the heads of bills” were prepared by the Irish Parliament, to be sent over to England. Among those was the infamous “act to prevent the further growth of Popery,” which provided that the eldest son of a Catholic, on becoming an apostate, might turn his father's estate into a tenantry for life, and take the fee simple and rental to himself. By the same statute, if a Catholic inherited property, he should conform within six months from the date the title accrued, or the estate be forfeited to the next “Protestant heir." By statute of the same year, (2 Anne, cap. 3, sec. 7,) if an unregistered priest was detected, a heavy fine was to be levied on the county in which he was found, and the proceeds paid over to the informer or detective. Against this bill, when first proposed at Dublin, the few remaining Catholics of influence, head.ed by Viscount Kingsland, Colonels Brown, Burke, and Nugent, Major Pat, Allen, and Arthur French, petitioned. The Parliament proceeded, and the bill was returned from London with the approval of the queen and her council. The Catholics, advised by Sir Toby Butler, who, with a few others, had been tolerated in the profession of law through family interest, renewed their opposition to it.
On the 22d of February, 1703, Sir Toby, with whom were Sir Stephen Rice and Counsellor Malone, appeared at the bar of the Irish House of Commons, against the bill “to prevent the further growth of Popery." The abstract of his speech on that occasion is one of the most remarkable documents of the age. It is full of interest and information. We copy from it at length: