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“ Chichester marched from Carrickfergus, and crossed “ the Bann at Toome: Docwra and his Derry troops “ advanced by way of Dungiven; and Mountjoy himself " by Dungannon and Killetrough;* - and wide over the "pleasant fields of Ulster trooped their bands of ill"omened, red-coated reapers, assiduous in cutting that “ saddest of all recorded harvests. Morning after morn

ing the sun rose bright, and the birds made music, as

they are wont to do of a summer's morning on the “ fair hills of holy Ireland;' - and forth went the labor

ers by troops, with their fatal sickles in their hands; " and some cut down the grain, and trampled it into the “ earth, and left it rotting there; and some drove away " the cattle, and either slaughtered them in herds, leaving “ their carcasses to breed pestilence and death, or drove " them for a spoil to the southward; and some burned “ the houses and the corn-stacks, and blotted the sun with “ the smoke of their conflagrations; and the summer " song of birds was drowned by the wail of helpless “ children and the shrieks of the pitiful women. All this

summer and autumn the havoc was continued, until “ from O'Cahan's country, as Mountjoy's secretary de“ scribes it, we have none left to give us opposition,

nor of late have seen any but dead carcasses, merely " starved for want of meat.

“ The deputy had taken Magherlowny and Ennis" laughlin, two principal forts and arsenals of O'Neil's, " and now, about the end of August, he penetrated to “ Tullough-oge, the seat of the clan O'Hagan, and broke “ in pieces that ancient stone chair in which the princes “ of Ulster had been inaugurated for many a century.t “ Castle-Roe also soon became untenable; and O'Neil,

retiring slowly, like a hunted beast keeping the dogs at " bay, retreated to the deep woods and thickets of Glan“con-keane, f the name of that valley through which the

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* Moryson.

+ Stuart, the historian of Armagh, says that some fragments of the O'Neil's stone chair used to be shown upon the glebe of the parish of Desert-creight, county Tyrone.

Gleann-cin-cein, the “ far head of the glen.”

“ Moyola winds its way to Lough Neagh, then the most “ inaccessible fastness in all Tyr-owen. Here, with six “ hundred infantry and about sixty horse, he made his “ last stand, and actually defied the armies of England " that whole winter. His western allies were still up in “ Connaught, and Bryan McArt O'Neil in Claneboy " -- and a favorable reverse of fortune was still possi“ ble; or the Spaniards might still remember him, and “ in any event he could ill brook the thought of surren“dering.

“ But the winter's campaign in Connaught was fatal “ to the cause in that quarter. In the north, O’Cahan “ gave in his submission to Docwra, and Chichester and “ Danvers reduced Bryan McArt; so that early in the 6 spring of 1603, O'Neil found that no chief in all Ireland 6 kept the field on his part, except O’Ruarc, McGwire, 66 and the faithful Tyrrell

. He had heard too of Rod“ erick O'Donnell's submission, and Red Hugh's death, 6 and that no more forces were to be hoped from Spain. “ Famine also and pestilence, caused by the ravage of “ the preceding summer, had made cruel havoc among “ his people. A thousand corpses lay unburied between “ Toome and Tullogh-oge, three thousand had died of “ mere starvation in all Tyr-owen, and no spectacle, " says Moryson, was more frequent in the ditches of “ towns, and especially of wasted countries, than to see 6 multitudes of the poor people dead, with their mouths all “ colored green by eating nettles, docks, and all things " they could rend up above ground. It was this winter " that Chichester and Sir Richard Moryson, returning “ from their expedition against Bryan McArt, saw a “ horrible spectacle - three children, the eldest not above “ ten years old, all eating and gnawing with their teeth 6 the entrails of their dead mother, on whose flesh they “ had fed for twenty days past.' Can the human imagi“ nation conceive such a ghastly sight as this? Or “ picture a winter's morning, in a field near Newry, " and some old women making a fire there, and divers “ little children, driving out the cattle in the cold morn“ ings, and coming thither to warm them, are by them


“ surprised, and killed, and eaten.'* Captain Trevor 66 and many honest gentlemen lying in the Newry,' wit66 nessed this horror a vision more grim and ghastly “ than any weird sisters that ever brewed hell-broth upon a blasted heath.

“ And at last the haughty chieftain learned the bitter “ lesson of adversity; the very materials of resistance “ had vanished from the face of the earth, and he “ humbled his proud heart, and sent proposals of ac6 commodation to Mountjoy. The deputy received his “ instructions from London, and sent Sir William Go“ dolphin and Sir Garret Moore as commissioners to

arrange with him the terms of peace. The negotia“ tion was hurried, on the deputy's part, by private infor“ mation which he had received of the queen's death; " and fearing that O'Neil's views might be altered by “ that circumstance, he immediately desired the com6 missioners to close the agreement, and invite O'Neil, “ under safe conduct, to Drogheda, to have it ratified 6 without delay.

“ On the 30th day of March (alas the day!) Hugh “ O'Neil, now sixty years


age, worn with care, and “ toil, and battle, and in bitter grief for the miseries of “ his faithful clansmen, - met the lord deputy in peaceful " guise at Mellifont, and, on his bended knees before " him, tendered his submission; and the favorable con“ ditions that were granted him, even in this, his fallen “ estate, show what anxiety the counsellors of Elizabeth 6 must have felt to disarm the still formidable chief. First “ he was to have full . pardon' for the past; next to be re“ stored in blood, notwithstanding his attainder and “.outlawry,' and to be reinstated in his dignity of Earl of

Tyr-owen; then he and his people were to enjoy full “ and free exercise of their religion; and new letters

patent' were to issue, regranting to him and other “ northern chiefs the whole lands occupied by their

respective clans, save the country held by Henry Oge “ O'Neil and Turlough's territory of the Fews. Out of

* Moryson in Mitchel's Life of Hugh O'Neil.

" the land was also reserved a tract of six hundred acres

upon the Blackwater; half to be assigned to Mount“joy Fort, and half to Charlemont.

« On O'Neil's part the conditions were, that he should

once for all renounce the title of · The O'Neil,' and " the jurisdiction and state of an Irish chieftain ; that 6 he should now,

at length, sink into an earl, wear his “ coronet and golden chain like a peaceable nobleman, 6 and suffer his country to become “shireground,' and “ admit the functionaries of English government. He " was also to write to Spain for his son Henry,* who “ was residing in the court of King Philip, and deliver “ him as a hostage to the King of England.

" And so the torch and the sword had rest in Ulster “ for a time; and the remnant of its inhabitants, to use “ the language of Sir John Davies, 'being brayed as it

were in a mortar with the sword, famine, and pesti“ lence together, submitted themselves to the British “ government, received the laws and magistrates, and “ gladly embraced the king's pardon.' That long, bloody “ war had cost England many millions of treasure, and 6 the blood of tens of thousands of her veteran soldiers; 6 and from the face of Ireland it swept nearly one half 6 of the entire population.”

Four years after, James being king, Cecil employed Lord Howth to hatch a plot against O'Neil, and Roderick O'Donnell. They were summoned to Dublin, but, forwarned of their fate, fled to the continent. In 1616, Hugh O'Neil received at Rome the holy viaticum, from Father Luke Wadding, to whom he intrusted his sword, in keeping for the next chief of the Irish nation. He is buried in the church of “ San Pietro in Montorio."

This Henry appears to have been the only son of O'Neil and his first wife ; and he had been living for some years in the court of King Philip. O'Neil had four wives in succession - first a daughter of one of the O'Tooles, then Hugh O'Donnell's sister, then Sir Henry Bagnal's sister, and last a lady of the McGennis family, of Down.” Mitchel.

7 •• In the year 1599 the queen spent six hundred thousand pounds in six months on the service of Ireland. Sir Robert Cecil affirmed that in ten years Ireland cost her three millions four hundred thousand pounds." - Hume. These were enormous sums at that period.”


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Roderick O'Donnell died in Spain, where his posterity rose to many honors, and from whence the return of a

Baldearg," who should liberate Ireland, was confidently expected for a hundred years after.

Thus passed away the first generation who resisted the introduction of Protestantism into Ireland. Judged by their enemies or their acts, they were no mean men. They were not deficient in policy, and they surpassed in valor. Rome recognized their championship, and Spain their reputation. Grey, De Burgh, Raleigh, Carew, Mountjoy, Cecil, Bacon, and Elizabeth were no ordinary adversaries. The resources of the enemy were far superior to those of the Catholics, and in the sovereignty of Elizabeth, the former had the incomparable advantage of a higher unity of action.

For a generation, no other Catholic armament was attempted. The reasons for this long and inglorious submission may be gleaned from the despatch which Mountjoy addressed to the privy council at the end of the war.

He writes “ And first, to present unto your lordships the out4 ward face of the four provinces, and after, to guesse

(as neere as I can) at their dispositions. Mounster, by “ the good government and industry of the lord pres" ident, is cleare of any force in rebellion, except some

few, not able to make any forcible head; in Leinster " there is not one declared rebell; in Connaught there is

but in O’Rorke's country; in Ulster none but “ Tyrone and Bryan McArt, who was never lord of

any country, and now doth, with a body of loose men, “ and some creaghts, continue in Glancomkynes, or neere 66 the borders thereof. Cohonocht McGwyre, some6 times Lord of Fermanagh, is banished out of the coun“try, who lives with O'Rorke; and at this time, Conor “ Roe McGwyre is possessed of it by the queene, and “ holds it for her. I believe that generally the lords of " the countries that are reclaimed desire a peace, though " they will be wavering till their lands and estates are 6 assured unto them from her majestie; and as long as

they see a party in rebellion to subsist, that is of a



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