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“power to ruine them, if they continue subjects or other“ wise, shall be doubtful of our defence. All that are " out doe seeke for mercy, excepting O’Rorke, and “ O'Sullivan, who is now with O’Rorke; and these are “ obstinate only out of their diffidence to be safe in any “ forgivenesse. The loose men, and such as are only “ captaines of bonnoghts, as Tirrell and Bryan Mc Art, 6 will nourish the warre as long as they see any possibilitie " to subsist; and like ill humours, have recourse to any “ part that is unsound. The nobilitie, towns, and English“ Irish are, for the most part, as weary of the warre as

any, but unwilling to have it ended, generally for fear " that upon a peace will ensue a severe reformation of “ religion; and, in partieular, many bordering gentlemen “ that were made poore by their own faults, or by rebels' “ incursions, continue their spleene to them, now they « are become subjects; and having used to help them“ selves by stealths, did never more use them, nor better

prevailed in them than now, that these submittees “ have laid aside their owne defence, and betaken them“ selves to the protection and justice of the state; and

many of them have tasted so much sweete in entertain“ments that they rather desire a warre to continue there " than a quiet harvest that might arise out of their own “ honest labour; so that I doe find none more pernicious " instruments of a new warre than some of these. In the " meane time, Tyrone, while he shall live, will blow “ every sparke of discontent, or new hopes that shall lye “ hid in a corner of the kingdome, and before he shall be “ utterly extinguished make many blazes, and sometimes “ set on fire or consume the next subjects unto him. “ I am persuaded that his combination is already broken, " and it is apparent that his meanes to subsist in any “ power is overthrowne; but how long hee may live as a “ wood-kerne, and what new accidents may fall out while “ he doth live, I know not. If it be imputed to my “ fault that, notwithstanding her majestie's great forces, “ he doth still live, I beseech your lordships to remember “ how securely the bandittoes of Italy doe live, between " the power of the King of Spaine and the pope. How




many men of all countreyes of severall times have in “ such sort preserved themselves long from the great "power of princes, but especially in this countrey, where " there are so many difficulties to carry an armie, in “most places so many unaccessible strengths for them "to flye unto; and then to bee pleased to consider the

great worke that first I had to breake this maine rebel. " lion, to defend the kingdom from a dangerous invasion “ of a mightie forraine prince, with so strong a partie in “ the countrey, and now the difficultie to root out scat"tered troopes that had so many unaccessible dennes to “ lurke in, which as they are by nature of extreme "strength and perill to bee attempted, so it is impossible “ for any people, naturally and by art, to make greater

use of them. And though with infinite dangers wee “ do beat them out of one, yet is there no possibilitie " for us to follow them with such agilitie as they will flye “ to another; and it is most sure that never traytor knew “ better how to keepe his owne head than this; nor any subjects have a more dreadfull awe to lay violent hands

on their sacred prince than these people have to touch " the person of their O'Neales; and hee that hath as pesti“ lent a judgment as ever any had to nourish and to

spreade his owne infection, hath the ancient swelling " and desire of libertie in a conquered nation to worke

upon; their fear to bee rooted out, or to have their old “faults punished upon all particular discontents, and

generally over all the kingdom, the feare of a per“secution for religion, the debasing of the coyne, (which " is grievous unto all sortes,) and a dearth and fam" ine, which is already begun, and must necessarily

grow shortly to extremity; the least of which, alone, “ have been many times sufficient motives to drive " the best and most quiet estates into suddaine con“ fusion. These will keepe all spirits from settling, “ breed new combinations, and, I feare, even stir the 6 townes themselves to solicit foraine-aide, with promise “ to cast themselves into their protection; and although " it bee true that if it had pleased her majestie to have

longer continued her army in greater strength, I

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s should the better have provided for what these cloudes “ doe threaten, and sooner and more easily either have " made this countrey a rased table, wherein shee might “ have written her owne lawes, or have tyed the ill-disposed " and rebellious hands till I had surely planted such a “ government as would have overgrowne and killed any “ weeds that should have risen under it; yet since the “ necessitie of the state doeth so urge a diminution of “ this great expense, I will not despayre to goe on with “ this worke, through all these difficulties, if wee bee not “ interrupted by forraine forces, although, perchance,

wee may be encountered with some new irruptions, 66 and (by often adventuring) with some disasters; and it “ may bee your lordships shall sometimes heare of

some spoyles done upon the subjects, from the which “ it is impossible to preserve them in all places, with far “ greater forces than ever yet were kept in this kingdome; " and although it hath been seldom heard that an armie “ hath been carried on with so continuall action, and en

during without any intermission of winter breathings, " and that the difficulties at this time to keepe any “ forces in the place where wee must make the warre “ (but especially our horse) are almost beyond any hope " to prevent, yet with the favour of God and her majes" ty's fortune I doe determine myselfe to draw into the “ field as soon as I have received her majesty's com“ mandments by the commissioners, who it hath pleased “ her to send over; and in the mean time I hope by “ mine owne presence or directions to set every partie

on worke that doth adjoyne, or may bee drawn against any force that doth now remaine in rebellion. In which journey the successe must bee in the hands of God: “ but I will confidently promise to omit nothing that is

possible by us to bee done, to give the last blow unto 6 the rebellion.”






The reigns of James and Charles I. were spent in dividing the spoils acquired by the late wars and confiscations.

Of the spoils gathered on the field of Kinsale, £1800 were set apart for Trinity College library. This institution, founded on the confiscated priory of All-Hallows, ceded for that purpose by the corporation of the city, opened in 1593; it first swallowed Cong Abbey, in Mayo, and Abbey O'Dorney, in the Desmond country. Other grants it had which were come at in the progress of the conquest. Mountjoy, who affected the literary character, and wrote commentaries after the manner of Cæsar, suggested the Kinsale contribution. His second in command, Carew, afterwards Earl of Totness, another author and actor of the same school, eagerly seconded the suggestion.

We cannot wonder to find a university so founded productive mainly of bigotry, and nurturing nationality only through ignorance of its nature. James Usher, nephew of the queen's Bishop of Armagh, was one of its first scholars, and in his department, its greatest name. He became the intellectual leader of Irish Protestantism; in 1615, drew its forty-two articles, which were superseded by the thirty-nine articles of the Westminster Confession in 1634. In his early career, he was distinguished as the author of the theory that the early Irish church was not in communion with Rome. Some bold sentences in St. Columba's epistle to Pope Boniface, the different days celebrated as Easter, and one or two other points, gave this theory a color of truth, which had no substance. Notwithstanding, it was a useful fallacy, and perhaps the Irish establishment would long since have fallen, but for its supposed revival of earlier dogmas and discipline.

Beside Usher, the prelate who strove most to naturalize Protestanism in Ireland was William Daniel, or O’Daniel, appointed Archbishop of Tuam in 1609. He had been one of the first fellows of Trinity College, and was celebrated for his attainments as a linguist. He translated the English Book of Common Prayer and the Greek Testament into Irish.* “ He was also


knowing in the Hebrew.He was not naturally a bigot, though “ early prejudice” seems to have made him sometimes a persecutor of the ancient clergy. In 1628, he died at Tuam, and was buried in the cathedral.

Sir James Ware, another early scholar of Trinity, was of the school of Usher and O'Daniel. His favorite study was Irish history; and although he favors the Protestants' theory of the church of St. Patrick, he never descends to the virulence of its modern defenders. When we name these three men, we name all the natives of Ireland, who, in the first century of Protestantism, distinguished themselves in the controversial service of the “reformation.”

The death of Elizabeth had inspired the Catholics with sanguine hopes. In the southern towns, the laity rose, expelled the parsons, and restored the priesthood. At Cork, an ecclesiastic, lately from Rome, was publicly fêted as the pope's legate. Religious processions filled the streets, and friars resumed the habit of their order. At Waterford, Father Peter White, an eminent Jesuit, preached, with exultation, that Jezabel was dead.

The Catholics had every assurance of sympathy from the agents and partisans of the new dynasty. The Stuarts were no strangers in Ireland. I'he blood of

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* In 1591, Queen Elizabeth provided Irish type for the university, "in the hope that God in his mercy would raise up some to translate the New Testament into their mother tongue.” Copies of Tyndal's Bible were placed in " the midst of the choir" of St. Patrick's Cathedral and Christ Church.

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