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s should the better have provided for what these cloudes “ doe threaten, and sooner and more easily either have " made this countrey a rased table, wherein shee might “ have written her owne lawes, or have tyed the ill-disposed " and rebellious hands till I had surely planted such a “ government as would have overgrowne and killed any “ weeds that should have risen under it; yet since the “ necessitie of the state doeth so urge a diminution of “ this great expense, I will not despayre to goe on with “ this worke, through all these difficulties, if wee bee not “ interrupted by forraine forces, although, perchance,

wee may be encountered with some new irruptions, 66 and (by often adventuring) with some disasters; and it “ may bee your lordships shall sometimes heare of

some spoyles done upon the subjects, from the which “ it is impossible to preserve them in all places, with far “ greater forces than ever yet were kept in this kingdome; " and although it hath been seldom heard that an armie “ hath been carried on with so continuall action, and en

during without any intermission of winter breathings, " and that the difficulties at this time to keepe any “ forces in the place where wee must make the warre “ (but especially our horse) are almost beyond any hope " to prevent, yet with the favour of God and her majes" ty's fortune I doe determine myselfe to draw into the “ field as soon as I have received her majesty's com“ mandments by the commissioners, who it hath pleased “ her to send over; and in the mean time I hope by “ mine owne presence or directions to set every partie

on worke that doth adjoyne, or may bee drawn against any force that doth now remaine in rebellion. In which journey the successe must bee in the hands of God: “ but I will confidently promise to omit nothing that is

possible by us to bee done, to give the last blow unto 6 the rebellion.”






The reigns of James and Charles I. were spent in dividing the spoils acquired by the late wars and confiscations.

Of the spoils gathered on the field of Kinsale, £1800 were set apart for Trinity College library. This institution, founded on the confiscated priory of All-Hallows, ceded for that purpose by the corporation of the city, opened in 1593; it first swallowed Cong Abbey, in Mayo, and Abbey O'Dorney, in the Desmond country. Other grants it had which were come at in the progress of the conquest. Mountjoy, who affected the literary character, and wrote commentaries after the manner of Cæsar, suggested the Kinsale contribution. His second in command, Carew, afterwards Earl of Totness, another author and actor of the same school, eagerly seconded the suggestion.

We cannot wonder to find a university so founded productive mainly of bigotry, and nurturing nationality only through ignorance of its nature. James Usher, nephew of the queen's Bishop of Armagh, was one of its first scholars, and in his department, its greatest name. He became the intellectual leader of Irish Protestantism; in 1615, drew its forty-two articles, which were superseded by the thirty-nine articles of the Westminster Confession in 1634. In his early career, he was distinguished as the author of the theory that the early Irish church was not in communion with Rome. Some bold sentences in St. Columba's epistle to Pope Boniface, the different days celebrated as Easter, and one or two other points, gave this theory a color of truth, which had no substance. Notwithstanding, it was a useful fallacy, and perhaps the Irish establishment would long since have fallen, but for its supposed revival of earlier dogmas and discipline.

Beside Usher, the prelate who strove most to naturalize Protestanism in Ireland was William Daniel, or O'Daniel, appointed Archbishop of Tuam in 1609. He had been one of the first fellows of Trinity College, and was celebrated for his attainments as a linguist. He translated the English Book of Common Prayer and the Greek Testament into Irish.* “ He was also


knowing in the Hebrew." He was not naturally a bigot, though "early prejudice” seems to have made him sometimes a persecutor of the ancient clergy. In 1628, he died at Tuam, and was buried in the cathedral.

Sir James Ware, another early scholar of Trinity, was of the school of Usher and O’Daniel. His favorite study was Irish history; and although he favors the Protestants” theory of the church of St. Patrick, he never descends to the virulence of its modern defenders. When we name these three men, we name all the natives of Ireland, who, in the first century of Protestantism, distinguished themselves in the controversial service of the “reforınation."

The death of Elizabeth had inspired the Catholics with sanguine hopes. In the southern towns, the laity rose, expelled the parsons, and restored the priesthood. At Cork, an ecclesiastic, lately from Rome, was publicly fêted as the pope's legate. Religious processions filled the streets, and friars resumed the habit of their order. At Waterford, Father Peter White, an eminent Jesuit, preached, with exultation, that Jezabel was dead.

The Catholics had every assurance of sympathy from the agents and partisans of the new dynasty. The Stuarts were no strangers in Ireland. The blood of

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* In 1591, Queen Elizabeth provided Irish type for the university, " in the hope that God in his mercy would raise up some to translate the New Testament into their mother tongue.” Copies of Tyndal's Bible were placed in “the midst of the choir” of St. Patrick's Cathedral and Christ Church.

Brian and of McMurrogh flowed in their veins, and antiquaries loved to trace their remoter descent from Fleance, who fled from Macbeth, the usurper, into Ireland. James had himself boasted this pedigree, and declared his ambition to become the pacificator of Ireland. By the act of oblivion, in his first year, he promised protection to all; but the next year by “the commission of grace," he substituted the English for the Celtic law; vassalage for tenant right; primogeniture for tanistry; rents and taxes for “coigne and livery ; tithes for termon lands; capital punishment for the eric and mutilation; patented earls for elective chiefs ; itinerant courts for local Brehaives; and the policy of England for the traditions of Ireland.

Worn down by a long unequal war, and abandoned by Spain, the Irish in Ireland submitted, while those abroad kept up the cause, and even procured the consent of Pope Clement VIII., that his nephew should assume the title of protector of Ireland," which he did accordingly.

James, alarmed by the gunpowder plot and the publications of the Irish exiles in Spain and Rome, and swayed, moreover, by Cecil, his minister, in his third year, openly declared against toleration. His proclamation ran as follows:

“ Whereas we have been informed that our subjects " in the kingdom of Ireland, since the death of our be6 loved sister, have been deceived by a false rumor, to 6 wit, that we would allow them liberty of conscience, “ contrary to the laws and statutes of that kingdom, and “ the religion which we profess. From this some have “ deemed us less zealous than we ought to be in the 6 administration of the Irish church, as well as in that 6 of the other churches over which it is our duty to “ watch; and very many of our Irish subjects seem “ determined in persevering in their obstinate contu“ macy. Jesuits, seminarists, priests, and bishops, who “ have received ordination at the hands of foreigners, “ thus emboldened, have lain concealed in various parts

of that kingdom, and now emerging from their hiding“ places, exercise their functions and rights, despising us “ and our religion.

Wherefore it hath seemed good to us to notify to “ our beloved subjects of Ireland, that we shall never “ tolerate such a state of things; and notwithstanding “ the rumors so industriously circulated, we are firmly “ resolved never to allow any religion save that which is 6 consonant to the word of God, established by our laws.

By these presents, therefore, let all men know that we “ strictly order and command all and every of our sub“ jects to frequent the parochial churches, to assist at “ the divine offices, and attend to the exposition of the “ word of God, on Sundays and festival days, according “ to the rule and spirit of the laws. They who will act “ contrariwise will incur the penalties provided by the “ statutes which we now order to be rigorously enforced.

6 And as it has been notified to us that Jesuits, semi“ nary priests, and many other priests, wander about the “ kingdom of Ireland, seducing our subjects to the ob“ servance of their superstitious ceremonies, thus bring“ing our laws into contempt: We now order and com“ mand that all such Jesuits, priests, seminarists, &c., “ &c., who have been ordained in foreign parts, or derive

any authority from the Roman see, do, after the

expiration of the last day of November, instant, with“ draw from our kingdom of Ireland; nor let any such

persons after that date venture to return into the afore“ said kingdom. Should they contravene this order, we

strictly ordain, that they are to be punished to the “ utmost rigor of the laws in this case already speci6 fied. We, moreover, strictly forbid all our subjects 66 of Ireland to shelter or countenance any Jesuit, semi

nary priest, or other priest, who will dare to re“ main in Ireland, or return thither after the 10th day 6 of December, instant.

6 But if any of the aforesaid Jesuits, seminary priests, or priests of any order, shall dare to remain in the “ kingdom of Ireland, or return thither after the 10th “ day of December, instant, and if any of our subjects “ shåll dare to receive or shelter them, we strictly com

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