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B LAX Infrared semiconductor lasers
G TORALDO DI FRANCIA Theory of optical resonators
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absorption additional amplitude applied approximation assume atoms band beam becomes calculation cavity compared complex components condition consider constant corresponding crystal density depends described determined diode direction discussed distribution effect electric electron elements emission energy equal equations excited experimental expression factor field frequency function gain given gives Hence increase integral intensity interaction ions laser levels light limit linear losses magnetic maser material matrix means measurement method mirrors modes molecules noise nonlinear observed obtained occurs operation optical oscillator phase photon Phys plane polarization population possible present pumping quantum radiation Raman region represents resonance respectively scattering separation shift shown shows side solution spectra spectrum stimulated Stokes temperature theory threshold transition usually vibrational wave wavelength width