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ficient funds for maintaining and enlarging the collections. He told us he was always waging a fierce battle “einen grossen Kampf" with his preparations, though he managed to keep them under with the assistance of four or five young men, who help him to dissect and prepare in his laboratory.
In the winter half year Prof. Pagenstecher gives courses on special zoology, comparative anatomy, and comparative physiology, with microscopic demonstrations; in the summer half year he gives general zoology and palæontology.
The cases in the museum are freely open to the students, and a small catalogue is placed in each. All the year round a sort of zoological laboratory goes on for zootomical practice.
Dr. Pagenstecher is professor of the subjects enumerated, and director of the museum. On hearing of our present arrangement for teaching Natural History in Owens College, he expressed his surprise at the inadequacy of the provision. In his judgment it is not possible to do with fewer than three professors at least, viz.: Of Geology and Palæontology; of Zoology and Human Physiology; of Botany.
The science schools in Bonn, Göttingen, Berlin, Leipzic, and Heidelberg are integral parts of those Universities ; in form, indeed, they do not even constitute a distinct faculty, being annexed to the Faculty of Arts. In Carlsruhe, however, exists an example of that important institution of modern Germany -the Polytechnicum. The Polytechnicum may be defined as an institution for teaching, on the largest scale, all the branches of the sciences of experiment and observation, and not only in their principles, but in their application to the several industrial arts—these applications being not treated as illustrations of science merely, but rather regarded as the main subjects for instruction, for the sake of which systematic lectures were given on theoretic science.
The Polytechnic School at Carlsruhe, with that at Zürich, seemed to us to be very ably and successfully conducted, and to contrast favorably with some other institutions of the same kind, in the more highly scientific character of its teaching, both experimental and theoretic.
It is worth while briefly to describe the constitution of this important institution, with its 600 students.
In the original programme the school was declared to consist of one general and seven special departments. The general department, called the mathematical, furnished instruction in mathematics, in natural science, and in modern languages and literature; and was viewed as preparatory to the special schools, and also as adapted for those who proposed to become teachers of mathematics and natural science. The seven special schools were of (1) Civil Engineering; (2) Mechanical Engineering; (3) Architecture; (4) Forestry; (5) Manufacturing Chemistry; (6) Commercial Studies ; (7) Civil Service (Postchule). This constitution is in the latest programme so far modified that (1) the general department is no longer treated in forin as introductory to the rest, though it still appears to be so virtually; and (2) the last two of the special departments enumerated above are omitted, while an agricultural department is added. The schools are, therefore, now seven, viz.: (1) Mathematics; (2) Civil Engineering; (3) Mechanical Engineering; (4) Architecture; (5) Chemistry; (6) Forestry; (7) Agriculture.
The teaching staff consists of the 24 professors and 16 assistant lecturers and laboratory assistants. The appliances comprise tive laboratories (viz.: Chemical, Physical, Mineralogical, and for Forestry and Agriculture), a library, and 12 different cabinets or collections. The Department of Natural Philosophy appeared to us to be very ably conducted; as many as 120 students attend the lectures of Prof. Wiedemann, in the large theatre of the department; and the cabinets (which are the private property of the Grand Duke) are large and well arranged. In the physical laboratory were 14 students, who go through the course in groups of four; most of these become teachers of the subjects in Real-Schulen; some get important posts in large mechanical workshops.
MUNICH-UNIVERSITY AND POLYTECHNIC. In Munich, as in Berlin, there are a University and a Polytechic School side by side.
The newly-founded polytechnicum in Munich is to absorb the schools hitherto existing in Augsburg, Nuremberg, and Würtzburg. The buildings were not completed at the date of our visit.
Dr. Jolly, professor of experimental physics in the University, in addition to his lectures, conducts a very important department called the MathematicoPhysical Seminary. There are at present about 10 or 12 in this department, which, with the physical laboratory, is open to all who propose to become teachers of physics in the Real-Schulen. Professor Jolly's method is much the same as that of Prof. Kirchhoff. He goes through each set of experiments once, and after that the students endeavor to perform them. When they fail to succeed they consult the professor or his assistant. At the end of the semester there is a practical examination.
ZÜRICH-UNIVERSITY AND POLYTECHNIC. In Zürich, also, there are both a University and a Polytechnic School; and although the university is a cantonal and the school a federal institution, they are so far allied, that they share one building, and many students of the University are, at the same time, pupils in the school. The total cost to the State for the maintenance of the polytechnic school is £12,000 per annum. The professors of the two institutions, moreover, work to a certain degree in concert. For instance, Dr. Bolley is professor of chemistry in the school, and Dr. Städler, professor of the same subject in the University. They have each a laboratory; but Prof. Städler's is an analytical, and Prof. Bolley's a technical laboratory. There are 42 students working in the former, and 50 in the latter.
There is less freedom allowed to pupils of the school as to the class to be attended. Definite courses are laid down; but, as at Owens College, relaxations are freely granted.
The most important department of the polytechnic school is that of mechanics and engineering; there are also departments for forestry and agriculture, and an important department for teachers—a sort of technological seminary.
The professor of technical or applied chemistry, Dr. Bolley, lectures about three or four times weekly throughout the session He makes four or five subdivisions: as the chemistry of color; of heating and lighting; of materials; of nourishment; of agriculture. Before entering this class the student is required to have attended a theoretical course and an elementary experimental course.
Dr. Zeuner, the professor of engineering, gives about 50 or 60 lectures yearly on the mechanical theory of heat; and he lectures six times a week for two semesters, on the theory of machines. The character of his courses is very high and rigorous; he insists on a knowledge of the differential calculus as a condition of entering his classes. He proceeded to remark on the generally inadequate mathematical preparation of English students of engineering, and mentioned his conviction that Professor Rankine, for whose works he expressed an unbounded admiration, must find the sphere of his efficiency as a teacher seriously limited by reason of the want of due preparation on the part of his students.
The following extracts from the prospectus of the lectures in the engineering department of the Zürich school show how much more complete is the scheme of instruction there than has at present been found possible in England:
B.-Department of Civil Engineering.
(Duration of course, 3% years.) 1st year. -Differential and integral calculus. Descriptive geometry. Princi
ples of construction. Practice in construction. Drawing.
Experimental physics. Experimental chemistry. 2d year.-Differential equations. Technical mechanics. Geometry of three
dimensions. Perspective. Technical geology. Topography.
Drawing. Descriptive mechanical construction. Surveying. 3d year.-Theoretical mechanical construction. Astronomy. Geodesy. Con
struction of iron bridges, railways, and iron roofs. Drawing. In addition to these courses there are similarly extensive programmes for (A) the Department of Architecture, and (C) the Department of Mechanical Engineering. The number of regular students in the year 1867 was in these subject: : (A) Department of Architecture, 33;6(B) Department of Civil Engineering, 103; (C) Department of Mechanical Engineering, 87.
II.--PROVISION MADE FOR THE PAYMENT OF PROFESSORS AND ASSISTANTS.
1. Professors.—The Professors ordinarii, at the German Universities and Polytechnic Schools, are servants of the State, and, a fuch, all receive salaries from the Government, varying in amount from £50 to £400 per annum, according to the importance of the chair and the standing of the professor. In addition to this fixed stipend, a large portion, or in many cases the whole, of the fees falls to the profes-or, and generally dwelling-houses are attached to the e tabli hment for the accommodation of the profe sor and staff. In the case of several of the leading professor hips the houses are spacious and handsome, and valued at lea t at £100 per annum.
2 Skilled Assistants -Attached to every professorship of chemistry are several a-si tantships. The assi tants are chosen by the professor from the most promising or best qualified students; they are also State servants, and receive salarie: from Government amounting to from £40 to £60 per annum, with the addition of residence, with fire, &c. The duties of these a -i- tants are (1) to attend to the preparation for illustrating the experimental lectures of the professor; (2) to assist in the practical teaching in the laboratory. For the fir t of the e purpo es the ervices of one assistant is required; for the second a number of a sistants are required, in proportion to the number of students working. In Bonn and Berlin one assistant is appointed for every 12 or 13 students, whilst in other laboratories a larger number of students are placed under each a si tant. On the whole, we find that the average ratio of students to a ristants is 20 to 1 In some ca es (as at Göttingen) the assistants are professors (extraordinarii) in the Univer ity, and lecture on special subjects, as well as take a certain number of the beginners in the laboratory altogether off the hands of the profe sor.
3. Fees.—The fees both for lectures and laboratory practice are much lower than with us. This is, of cour-e, explained by the fact that all the science schools are Government institutions. Thus at Heidelberg the fee for the lectures on chemistry (five hours weekly, for from four to five months) is £1 14s. per “semester," whilet the laboratory fee is £4 for working six days
DEVELOPING SCHOOL, AND SCHOOL-SHOPS.
BY 8. P. RUGGLES.
Report of Committee of the American Social Science Association, Jan. 10, 1877.
There is an order of education, which may be called special, by which every individual in a community in harmony with his choice shall not only be cultivated into an able man, but shall, in addition, have a practical training in that peculiar knowledge and specific skill by which he becomes habitually a machinist, mason, carpenter, builder, architect, engineer, ship-builder, naval architect, etc. Each of these duties must be learned by some person, over and above and in addition to all that he knows in common with others; and it is plain that the work of each citizen will have value in exact proportion to his skill. In other words, the value of a nation's work will vary with the excellence of its national system of technical education.
The question comes home to every one of us, How shall we train the children and youth, who are to succeed us in this world, changed by science and invention, for the wide field of responsibility that lies before them? The conditions of society have undergone such a radical change during the last forty or fifty years that the laborer must now receive a different practical education from what was required two generations ago. Apprenticeship having departed, never to return in its ancient form, something else must take its place, and give to our artisans practical instruction. Every youth should have placed within his reach such technical instruction as will enable him to become the master of his trade, art or occupation. By the old apprentice system, the boy was bound to the master some seven years, and received his instruction more by his own observation than by any direct teaching. We recommend the plan suggested
by Mr. S. P. Ruggles, and so universally endorsed by the press, in contradistinction to the former system of our fathers, – that the youth, whenever he has completed his general education in any of our public or private schools, may, enter what may be called a
so established and arranged as to give all the pupils a good general idea of all the different trades, arts or callings, in order that it may be ascertained by themselves or the superintendent for what kind of business they have the greatest natural genius. Imagine, if you please, one very large room, with a steam-engine and boiler in the middle of it, so that all pupils that have any taste for the management of steam, or steam-engines, could examine every point, and readily understand all about it. Then we would have a carpenter's bench, with a variety of tools, to show how that work was done ; then perhaps turning-lathes, to show how the wood-turning business was performed ; then, with the aid of blackboards and carving-tools, it might be seen how drawing and carving is done, by those that have any inclination for that business. We should also have planingmachines, lathes, upright drills, jig-saws, etc., to represent the machinist business. Foundry work should be shown by having the usual fixtures for sand, and two and three part flasks for moulding, etc. ; the casting could be done in soft metals, as lead, zinc or tin, which could be reused, as the whole art in foundry work consists in the different manner of moulding; and almost all other trades or methods of doing work could be pretty well represented in the same
As soon as it should be ascertained what kind of business the pupil is best fitted for by nature, he would be recommended to the SCHOOL-SHOP where that trade should be taught, and be more thoroughly instructed in two years, and become a better mechanic, than in six or seven years under the old system of learning a trade.