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the prosecution of his studies ; occasionally, the calm and even tenor of his life, was slightly ruffled by pamphlet controversies, with those who attacked the creed or practice of the Anglican church-controversies in which he rarely or never acted the part of the aggressor, but usually of the respondent of this character was his controversy with Mr. Dickinson, Mr. Foxcroft, Mr. Graham, his “ Letter from Aristocles to Anthades,” and his rejoinder to Mr. Dickinson's reply to that letter. In controversy, as every where else, it may be remarked, that Mr. Johnson exhibited the character of the Christian gentleman, never suffering himself to be betrayed into the use of the bitter and acrimonious language, which have made the odium theologicum, proverbial, as the most venomous of all hatreds. In 1746, Mr. Johnson published "A System of Morality, containing the first principles of moral philosophy or ethics, in a chain of necessary consequences from certain facts." This work had a high reputation at the time of its publication, and met with an extensive sale. In 1743, the degree of Doctor in Divinity, was unanimously conferred upon him by the University of Oxford. The degree was conferred, it is said, at the special instance of Archbishop Secker, then Bishop of Oxford, Dr. Hodges, then Vice-Chancellor of the University and Provost of Oriel College, Dr. Astry, and others.

The honor thus conferred on him, had only the effect to make him more zealous in his studies, especially in Hebrew and the other ori. ental languages, in which he was more proficient than most of the scholars of the eighteenth century, in this country.

Dr. Johnson had two sons; William Samuel, and William, both whom he fitted for college himself, and entered them at Yale when they were about thirteen years of age. The elder became eminent as a lawyer, received the degree of LL. D. from the University of Oxford, in 1766, and was, for several years, the agent of the Colony in England; the younger studied divinity, and was subsequently a tutor in King's College, under his father.

Dr. Johnson prepared a compendium of logic and metaphysics, and another of ethics, for the use of his sons, and these were published together in 1752, by Benjamin Franklin, for the use of the University of Pennsylvania, then just established at Philadelphia. Dr. Johnson and Dr. Franklin were constant correspondents for many years, and the views of the latter on electricity were laid before Dr. Johnson, before their publication. The plan of education in the University in which Dr. Franklin was deeply interested, was also modified at his suggestion, and he was offered the presidency of it, which, however, he declined.

In 1753, the principal gentlemen of New York, with LieutenantGovernor Delancey at their head, undertook to found a college in New York City. In all their plans, Dr. Johnson was consulted, and when the charter was obtained, and they were ready to organize the college, he was elected president. He at first declined, but finding that, unless he accepted, they would relinquish the enterprise, he very reluctantly consented, and in 1754 took leave of his congregation at Stratford, with deep regret on both sides. A singular condition was attached to his acceptance, which shows how great an amount of terror the ravages of small-pox had produced in the minds of all classes, at that time ; "he was to be at liberty to retire to some place of safety in the country, whenever the small-pox should render it. dangerous for him to reside in the city.”* To those who have only known its dangers, when modified by vaccination, this extraordinary dread seems almost incredible.

On the 17th July, 1754, the first class, consisting of ten students, assembled in the vestry-room of Trinity Church, and the regular course of study was commenced, the doctor himself hearing the recitations. In addition to the labor of instruction, he also drew up the form of prayers for the college, composed a suitable collect, compiled a body of laws for their use, deyised a seal for the corporation, assisted in the planning of the college edifice, and wrote to his friends in England, Bishop Sherlock, Archbishop Secker, and the Society for the propagation of the gospel, for assistance. On the admission of the second class, his younger son, William Johnson, was appointed tutor, which office he filled, to universal acceptance, for more than a year, when he sailed for England, in November, 1755, with a view to take orders, and settle, as the missionary of the Society for the propagation of the gospel, at Westchester. He received holy orders, in March, and the degree of A. M. was conferred on him by both Oxford and Cambridge, in May, 1756 ; but, soon after his return from Cambridge, he was seized with the small-pox, of which he died, June 20th, 1756. A Mr. Cutting, educated at Eton and Cambridge, succeeded Mr. Johnson as tutor; the college edifice was making good progress, but, soon after the president received the painful intelligence of the death of his son, he was compelled to leave New York, by the prevalence of the small-pox there, and could not return under a year. He left about thirty students in the three classes, and, as Mr. Cutting was unable to teach them all, Mr. Treadwell, a graduate of Harvard College, was appointed second tutor. During the year 1757, the college received from England a library, consisting of about fifteen hundred volumes, the bequest of Rev. Dr. Bristowe, through the society for the propagation of the gospel. Dr. Johnson returned to New York, in March, 1758, and in June following was called to bury his wife, with whom he had lived very happily for thirty-two years. On the 21st June, 1758, he held his first commencement, at which the students received their first degree, and several other persons the second. During the succeeding year, the college curriculum was more thoroughly systematized, the president giving instructions in Greek, logic, metaphysics, and ethics, while the tutors, or professors as they were now called, divided between them the other studies. In 1759, soon after the second commencement, he was again obliged to leave the city in consequence of the prevalence of the small-pox, and spent the winter at Stratford, though not without much anxiety of mind relative to the college, as the mathematical professor was very ill with consumption, and died the ensuing spring. In April, Benjamin Nicoll, one of Dr. Johnson's step-sons, an eminent lawyer in New York, and one of the governors or trustees of the college, died very suddenly. The loss was a very severe one to the college, and to the community, but Dr. Johnson was almost overwhelmed by it, and de sired to resign his office and return to Stratford, to spend the remainder of his days, with his only surviving son; and accordingly he wrote to England, desiring that two gentlemen might be sent out, one to act as mathematical professor, and the other to take his place. The college edifice was at this time completed, and he removed into it, and here held, in May, 1760, his third commencement, and, in connection with Mr. Cutting, performed the whole duty of teaching the four classes that year. In 1761, soon after the fourth commencoment, he published an essay, entitled “A Demonstration of the Rewsonableness, Usefulness, and great Duty of Prayer," and, not long after, & sermon “On the Beauty of Holiness in the Worship of the Church of England." In June of the same year, he married a second wife, Mrs. Beach, the widow of an old friend and former parishioner. At the commencement of the next term, a mathematical professor, Mr. Robert Harper, was appointed, and the cares of the president somewhat diminished. The college had been partially endowed by moneys raised by subscription, and by a lottery, at the time of its charter, and had subsequently received a donation of £500 from the Society for the propagation of the gospel, and a Mr. Murray had be

*The small-pox seems to have been, through life, “the skeleton on the hearth" to the good doctor; and this is hardly matter of surprise ; for, at the commencement of his ministry, his friend, Dr. Cutler, hardly escaped with his life from it in England ; bis friend, Mr. Brown, died with it there, as did also, subsequent to his removal to New York, his younger son ; he himself more than once left his post in New York, in consequence of its prevalence; and. in 1763, his second wife fell a victim to it.


queathed to it an estate of about £10,000 currency; but, after erecting the necessary buildings, and incurring other expenses, its funds were reduced so low, that the interest was not sufficient, with the other income of the college, for the support of the officers, and it was therefore necessary that it should be further endowed. The president was desirous that an effort should be made to procure some assistance from England, and a suitable opportunity offering, in the visit of James Jay, M. D., to England, the governors were persuaded by the president to accept Dr. Jay's offer, to endeavor to raise funds for them. The president of the University of Pennsylvania had sailed for Eng. land a few weeks before, as was subsequently ascertained, on a like errand in behalf of his own college, and, by the advice of the friends of both, the collection for the two colleges was made a joint one. The king, however, gave £400 to the college at New York, which thenceforward received the name of King's College. The half of the avails of the collection, received by King's College, amounted to about £6,000, above the expenses. In the autumn of 1762, Rev. Myles Cooper, a graduate of Queen's College, Oxford, came to New York, recommended by Archbishop Secker as a suitable person for a professor in the college, and to succeed Dr. Johnson when he should resign. He was immediately appointed professor of moral philosophy, and soon won the regard of all the friends of the college. Dr. Johnson had not intended to resign until after the commencement, in May, 1763, but the sudden death of Mrs. Johnson, of small-pox, in February, of that year, determined him to relinquish his situation at an earlier period, and he accordingly threw in his resignation about the first of March, and retired to Stratford. Mr. Cooper was chosen president before the commencement in May, and Dr. Clossy, a graduate of Trinity College, Dublin, appointed professor of natural philosophy.

In 1764, Dr. Johnson again became rector of the church at Stratford, and continued in that office until his death. But though it would have seemed that, at the age of nearly seventy, after a life of so great intellectual activity, he would have sought the repose and quiet he had so fairly earned, yet we find the instinct of the teacher was so strong, that he devoted himself to new labors in behalf of his grand-children, preparing first an English grammar for their use, then revising his catechism, his works on logic and ethics, and finally preparing a Hebrew and English grammar, published in London, in 1767, and subsequently revised and enlarged in 1771. At the same time, he reviewed, with great care, his theological and philosophical opinions, and the ground on which they were based ; spent some hours each day in the study of the Hebrew scriptures, and, though laboring under a partial paralysis of the hand, kept up, with great punctuality, an extensive correspondence with eminent men, both in England and America. After his death, portions of his correspondence with Bishops Berkeley, Sherlock, and Lowth, and Archbishop Secker, were published, and fully justified the high reputation in which he had been held while in life. His death, which occurred on the 6th of January, 1772, was very peaceful, and, though sudden, entirely unattended with pain. He expired while sitting in his chair, and conversing on his approaching departure, with his family.

The following inscription, composed by his friend and successor in the presidency of King's College, Rev. Dr. Cooper, was placed upon bis monument, in Christ Church, Stratford :

M. S.
Collegü Regalis, Novi Eboraci

Præsidis primi,
et hujus Ecclesiæ nupe Rectoris
Natus die 14to Octob. 1696

Obiit 6to Jan. 1772.

“If decent dignity, and modest mien,
The cheerful heart, and countenance serene ;
If pure religion, and unsullied truth,
His age's solace, and his search in youth ;
If piety, in all the paths he trod,
Still rising vig'rous to his Lord and God;
If charity, through all the race he ran
Still wishing well, and doing good to man ;
If learning, free from pedantry and pride,
If faith and virtue, walking side by side ;
If well to mark his being's aim and end,
To shine through life, a husband, father, friend ;
If these ambitions in thy soul can raise,
Excite thy reverence, or demand thy praise ;
Reader-ere yet thou quit this earthly scene,
Revore his name, and be what he has been."

MYLs. Coopi

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