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fession I have chosen, namely: by enlightening the people, (who, according to Isaiah (chap. ix., verse 11], without metaphor, “walk in darkness,") to lay a foundation for salutary reforms. Hitherto, an all-governing providence has blessed my weak endeavors beyond my expectation. This gives me confidence, and supports my failing courage, when I see my aim, its perfection, so far away from my work. But great and small powers must act in concert, if darkness is ever to be lifted from the nations. By all, and for all, abilities must be worked toward a general felicity; and while I attempt, from the numerous instances of truth, to select for the peasant what is most useful to his understanding, you raise yourself to the height of a great teacher and governor of mankind, and by the all-powerful strength of poetry, devoted to noble objects, you convert discord into harmony. Oh, that for all spiritual gifts there were general objects. I almost undertake to find such a plan in the exclamation of the angels : Glory to God on high, on earth peace and good will toward all men! A good work of genius aiming at this end testifies that its author, that he is in sympathy with the angels.'

March 13th, 1776, he sent to Gleim a copy of his work and requested him to state frankly his opinion: “As undeserved and as bumiliating is often to me the praise, which expresses too warmly friendship, yet your approval is a prize I have wished for. If I can obtain that, and from all a general opinion on my book, that it is useful, I am satisfied.'

Local School Reforms. Beside this authorship and correspondence in the interest of public instruction generally, Rochow began a reform in the schools on his own estates, which before had only ordinary teachers, old and incompetent. When the old teacher at Rekahn died, in 1773, the place was offered to Henry J. Bruns, a pupil of the cathedral school at Halberstadt, who had been an inmate of Rochow's family for seven years, as musician and copyist, and had made himself familiar with Rochow's ideas, as well as increased his knowledge by aid of that nobleman's library, and afterward had become cantor and organist of St. John's church in Halberstadt. This excellent man, full of tenderness, amiability, and childlike disposition, became the instrument through whicb Rochow's principles of education were carried out for the next twelve years.

Reforms in the other two schools, at Gettin and Krahne, were introduced in 1774. Rochow made to each of these schools a gift

• He died in 1794—forty-eight years old. Rochow had a monument placed in his garden, with this significant inscription : HE WAS A TEACHER.




of one hundred thalers. He commenced his improvements by first building new school-houses; the one at Rekahn, for that time, was an excellent building. All tuition fees were abolished, and the necessary books and other aids of instruction were furnished. The Reader (Rochow's Kinderfreund) was given to every child in the schools, of whom there were sixty to seventy, divided in two classes, under separate teachers. The smallest children of the lower class attended school but one hour daily during the first year; gradually their attendance was prolonged. Generally they were admitted at the age of six years, and promoted at the end of every school year. A vacation of two weeks occurred at barvest time, and a like one in the spring. An industrial school for girls was established in the hall of the castle, where a lady taught needlework, knitting, etc. The period for attending school was fixed from six to fourteen years; during the last year the pupils were instructed in religion preparatory to their confirmation. After confirmation the child was permitted to withdraw from the school, but up to that age, his attendance was continuous.

The subjects of instruction were selected for these schools on Rochow's principle: 'No man can do any work without reason, i.e, he can not expect a regular result and success.' 'Right or wrong, acts or omissions, are decided by what every one thinks on right or wrong; in one word, whether he acts conscientiously.' •Every thing in school must be understood; all new and difficult things must be explained orally and by conversation.'

In a circular addressed to his teachers, May 6, 1776, he expresses himself on religious instruction, describing, as its main object, 'to train the children to become sincere worshipers of God, who, by their deportment, prove that they belong to Christ, and desire to become subjects of his blessed kingdom for ever; next to train them into sueh men, skillful in every good work, because they know the road to heaven passes over this earth; that fidelity to the duties of life is a practice of Christianity, making easier the duties of religion, and causing the light to shine before the people in the usefulness and skill of daily labor.' He was of opinion that, by the largest possible cultivation of the mind, the knowledge of duty, and the practice of it, would be furthered. School education should aim to make children practical and useful men.

For progressive instruction in reading and in the subjects submitted to the pupils, Rochow wrote his “Kinderfreund' in two parts, and proposed that they should be published by the government and be generally introduced in country schools. The manu

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script was for a long time before the school authorities, without any decision being made, when the autbor reclaimed it, and the first edition of the first part appeared in 1776, the second part in 1777, and the work attained great reputation. It was translated into French, Danish, Polish, and modified to suit the Catholic schools in the Rhine provinces, and passed through four editions.

When the author was introduced to King Frederic William III., the latter said: 'I learned to read from your Kinderfreund.' Rochow must have known this before; for as early as 1785, he wrote: • Hail to the young prince, who from this school book learns more than he can ordinarily of the condition of those, to increase whose happiness will be one day his duty.' And Frederic William III. seems to have remembered many important things from Rochow's Reader.

If it is remembered that the present authors of school readers only have to collect from the many noble materials existing in order to find excellent selections for their purpose, so that in our day it is almost hard to produce a bad reader, Rochow was not so favorably situated. In the first place, he found no good material on band which he could employ as subjects of useful instruction for country scholars; the whole spirit of the same economy, and special employment being new, he was obliged to compose himself. In the second place, his book had to carry out consistently a purpose within distinct limits, and thus all his material had to be similar in character and each limited; and Rochow consequently was under the necessity of writing all himself. It is not easy to conceive the simple relations of ordinary rural life in their variety, significance, and importance, to render them easily understood in their original causes, to make attractive whatever is laudable, and create aversion to all evil, and to do this always in a childlike, noble, sensible, instructive, and, so to say, in an always novel manner, within the limits of the faculties of the young. In all this, Rochow had been eminently successful. The late School Counselor, 0. Schulz, of Berlin, had not despised to learn from Rochow's Kinderfreund, when he composed his own very excellent Readers. More than 100,000 copies of the Kinderfreund' has been distributed ; and in 1830, a new edition was published by Counselor Turk, at Brandenburg, under the title, “The New Children's Friend.'

Educational Publications. In addition to his Reader, Rochow published the following educational works :-1. Manual of Catechetic Forms for Teachers. First edition, 1783. Second edition, 1789. This book contains


material on four subjects, viz.: Object of Teaching, Means, Order and Method of Teaching; the author's opinion against the prevailing opinion, that education was not beneficial to the lower classes, and his aim to show that a true power of reason can be attained only by a genuine education. He maintains in the introduction: * From the power of thinking, directed early and in a proper manner, come good principles, and from good principles issue good actions. Knowledge gives ability. He who can speak distinctly and intelligently, makes himself understood easily; he who knows language and is attentive, is able to understand; he who knows only that mankind is obliged, by their mutual relations, to live in love, and can enjoy happiness only as far as they love God and one another, can not be the enemy of mankind; and he who observes only the injurious tendencies of bad habits, will be inclined to guard against them. To do all this is, to enlighten and to cultivate.

2. Catechism of Sound Reason, or an attempt to define important words, in their general signification, illustrated by examples for the purpose of a more just and more improving knowledge.' Berlin and Stettin: F. Nicolai, 1786. From this book the teachers of our day may learn how to abstract ideas, not only by definitions but also by examples. It contains in all, definitions of 67 words.

3. 'The Regulations of the Cathedral Chapter for the better Government and Organization of the Teachers' Seminary at Halberstadt, -first issued in 1789.

4. • Corrections.'-A collection of definitions, full of pedagogic suggestions, not intended for the school alone, but for the educated classes of his time, was issued in 1792. Two years afterward he published a second volume, in which he gives the fruits of his reflections on the most important ideas on politics and morals of his age.

5. In 1792, he translated Mirabeau's ' Discourse on National Education. He also wrote on Schools for the Poor ; on Abolition of Public Beggary; on the Credit System ; on Government ; on the Formation of National Character by Popular Schools; on German Law and Christian Principles; on A History of My Schools.

These various writings gave him many friends, as well as some enemies, or at least, many opponents who would not agree to the success of his schools, which were visited by strangers so frequently that the work of the teachers was much disturbed. In Riemann's Description of the Schools at Rekahn,' of 1798, we find : Mr. Rudolph, the clergyman, who assisted in the organization of the schools, expresses himself, twenty-five years afterward, thus: “The people have become more considerate; they more freely enter into conver

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sation, and are less timid than before. Their morals are much better than in other villages, though an outward demeanor and abstaining from excess is not yet become general.” :

The greatest merit of Rochow's schools and efforts lies in this, that in the countries of Prussia, especially in many parts of Saxony, they imparted the first impulse to a reformation of the popular schools, which at that time were in a wretched condition. At present, the schools on the Rekabn estates are no better than elsewhere; but during the life of Rochow they shone as brilliant examples, and have carried the well deserved reputation of their founder to the present day. The proprietor of another large estate had scarcely seen the schools of Rochow, when he established a free school for the children of his tenants, which became a model school; after which other institutions in his neighborhood were formed. And this influence went beyond Germany. When Count Reventlow, from the island of Fünen, heard of Rochow's school, he caused three schools to be built in 1784, in which he introduced the Kinderfreund and the methods of Rekahn. More than any man of his time, he gave a rational aim and method to the popular school, and in thousands of schools scattered all over the German States, by means of his school books; and the teachers trained after his methods, helped to convert the peasant into an observing, thinking, self-governing man. Von Rochow died in his own home May 16, 1805, at the age

of seventy, and was buried in a new graveyard laid out by himself, and called Rochow's Rest. A monument is also dedicated to his memory in a grove near Halberstadt.

He is one of the representative men of his age and country—one of those men who, if he did not lay the foundations, helped to build up a system of popular education for a great nation. He had the sagacity to see the identity of interests in the different classes of the same community. Born to the inheritance of a great estate, he expended his time and money, to make his dependents, and the common people every where, partakers of the civilization of his age.

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