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81,707.56 16,631.84 48,269.75 90,000.00 130,000.00 54,200.00
$599,911.42 The Agricultural School Fund (1875) amounts to $85,000. In the year 1905, when the fund becomes available, it is but reasonable to expect, should the present rate of increase continue, that it will have reached the sum of $350,000. The testator has prescribed what sort of a school is to be established. He proposes that there shall be two farms, one as a 'model' and the other as an 'experimental farm. On these farms are to be established a manufactory of 'Implements of Husbandry,' and a 'School of Industry for the benefit of the Poor,' in which boys taken from the most indigent classes shall receive a good common school education, and be instructed in agriculture or mechanics. At the age of twenty-one years, each boy is to receive $200. Here we have a system more comprehensive than any school of its kind yet in operation in this country.
There is another view in which this institution is of great value to this community, and that is in the fact that it always has money to loan. The business man or the mechanic, who needs a little money to make him a home or extend his business, can readily obtain a loan from the institution, at a fair rate of interest, and numbers avail themselves of the privilege every year.
The following named persons were chosen electors at the annual town meet‘ings in 1875:
Electors : Henry M. Brewster, Williamsburg ; Charles 8. Smith, Amherst ; Lucien 8. Eaton, Deerfield ; R. A. Packard, Greenfield; Sam'ı P. Billings, Hatfield ; Justin W. C. Allis, Whately; John N. Pierce, Hadley; J. C. Arıns, Northampton.
The electors subsequently made choice of trustees as follows:
Trustees : Geo. W. Hubbard, Northampton; Sereno Kingsley, Williamsburg; John C. Sanderson, Whately.
According to the Report of the Trustees of the Smith Charities for May, 1877, the amount of the several Funds at that date was as follows:Joint Fond.
$589,720.99 Contingent Fund..
335,938.06 Agricultural Fund
94,521.41 Banking House and Lot..
Out of the income of the Joint Fund, payments were made in 1876–7 tom Indigent Young Women
84,650.71 Indigent Widows.......
9,100.71 Indigent Boys .
12,000.00 Indigent Feinale Children..
Twenty-two apprenticed boys have come of age, and received loans of $500 each, during the year, and the matured notes of twenty-four others have been surrendered
Eighteen of the girls formerly apprenticed have married during the year, and received the marriage portions to which they were entitled; and twelve others of the same class have received allowance for sickness expenses.
Forty-four boys and nineteen girls have been indentured within the year.
The whole number of boys under indenture, at this time, is one hundred and twenty-four; and of girls, seventy-nine.
A PRINCETON GRADUATE AT GÖTTINGEN.*
[Prom German Ca'versitics. By James Morgan Hart, L.L. D.)
FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE UNIVERSITY AND THE TOWN.
The Englishman or American who visits a German university town for the first time will scarcely realize the fact that it is the seat of a great institution of learning. He can see nothing; there is no visible sign of the University, no chapel, no huge buildings, whether we call them dormitories or quadrangles, no campus. There is no ra!lying place of professors and students, where he can stand and, letting his eye sweep around on every side,, say: This is the university..' He may even pass his entire life in the town and never once see the body of professors and students assembled in one place.
'I dwell upon this distinction, because it is an important one. The reader who wishes to get a just notion of the character of a German University must dismiss from his mind all prejudices, any expectation of finding what his early associations may have led him to consider as the conspicuous features in seat of learning. As I walked around the wall of Göttingen for the first time, the predominating thought in my mind was: Where is the University? I could find no tangible evidence of its existence, its reality. Putting what questions I could in my imperfect German, and paying strict attention to the answers, I could make out that the dome. to the left, near the starting place of our walk, by the Geismar Gate, was an observatory; considerably farther on, in close proximity to the railway station, was a large building bearing the inscription “Theatrum Anatomicum,” evidently the medical school; still further on, in the moat by the side of the wall, was an arrangement of glass-houses, that was no less evidently a botanical garden. This was all of the University that I could detect in my first tour of the great Göttingen promenade.
Göttingen may serve as the type of the German university town. The population is about 12,000. The streets are neither very straight nor very crooked, and no one runs directly through the town; in general they are tolerably wide. The houses are plain and poorly built. The framework is of wood, the outer walls being filled in. with a sort of mud that is mixed with a good deal of straw to give it consistency; after the mud has dried, it is painted. For a cheap mode of building, it is much better than might be supposed. The
• German Universities: A narrative ef Personal Experience, together with recent Fiatletical Information, Practical Soggestions, and a Comparison of the German, English and American Systems of Higher Educatiov. By James Morgan Hart New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 1874. 398 pp. 12mo.
number of stone and brick buildings is small. The handsomest building in town is (or was in my day) the Laboratory, built under the supervision of Wöhler himself, since deceased. It is a large structure built of light blue stone, and perfectly fireproof. The Aula is the centre of the university, so far as it can be said to have a centre. It is a small but not inelegant-looking building, somewhat after the Grecian order, standing on a small open place or square not far from the centre of the town. In this Aula new students are matriculated and the University Court holds its sessions; it also contains the general offices of the university, such as the treasurer's, and last, but not least, the Carcer, where unruly students are confined for a fortnight or less, for minor offences; graver ones are punished by relegation or by expulsion.
Lectures on chemistry were delivered in the laboratory; those on medicine, in the Theatrum Anatomicum; all the others, including theology, law, and philosophy, in the university sense of that term, were held in the so-called Collegien-haus, a short row of buildings that had once been private dwellings, but had been converted into lecture rooms.
In 1865 the new Collegien-haus was opened, a large and elegant building constructed for the especial purpose, just out of the Wende Gate, near the Botanical Garden. By the side of the old Collegienhaus, separated from it by an arched way, stands the celebrated university library, one of the best in Europe; the building is nothing more than an old church, adapted to secular uses and enlarged here and there by irregular extensions or wings. In the arched way between the lecture rooms and the library stood the Schwarzes Brett (black board), a long board painted black and having a wire screen in front. On this board were posted all announcements relating to university instruction, announcements of lectures or changes in lectures, of degrees conferred upon students, and the like.
Besides the buildings that I have described, there are other minor ones scattered over the town; the headquarters of the Agricultural Department arc even located about two miles out of town, on a model farm near the village of Wende.
It is needless to go deeper into details. I have said already enough to make it clear to the reader that a German university, as far as buildings and outward show are concerned, is made up of disjecta membra. There is a bond of vital union, & very strong one coo, but it is wholly spiritual; it does not appeal to the senses. In architectural display, I am confident that the most unimportant College at Oxford or Cambridge will surpass any University in Germany.
STUDENT DOMESTIC LIFE
The landlady, Frau — was the only one who pretended to give what we call “boarding." German students, be it observel, never board; each man lives by himself, in his own room, takes his breakfast, and generally his supper, there, but dines at the table d'hôte of a hotel or restaurant. The life, then, that I led during my first winter in Göttingen was not strictly that of a German student. My breakfast, merely rolls and coffee, was brought to my room by the servant; dinner and supper, we, i. e., myself and the other boarders, two Americans and an Englishman, had in the dining-room with our landlady. We paid so much a month for “full board,” while the German student hires his room by the semester, and keeps a book account for whatever he orders, paying up at the end of every week or month,
Yet the rooms that we had were like those of every other student. The one occupied by E being rather more typical than my own, I shall describe it in preference. It was a large square room, the two front windows facing on the street, the side window orerlooking the wall as it sloped down to make an entrance for the Geismar road into the town. Off to one side was the sleeping-room, one half the size of the study. Neither room was carpeted. In one corner of the room, near the door, stood the inevitable Ofen, a big stove of porcelain reaching almost to the ceiling. The German theory of heating is to have a large stove of massive porcelain, in which your servant makes a rousing fire in the morning; after the blazo has died out, and nothing is left but the glimmering coals, the door and the clapper are made fast. The stove is then supposed to hold its heat and maintain a uniform temperature in the room. The fuel used is generally wood; even in Leipsic and Berlin, where wood is dear and coal comparatively cheap, the former is preferred for room and parlor stoves. This plan of heating has its advantages and its drawbacks. It is rather economical, and it secures a uniform temperature for a certain time; besides saving one the trouble of raking and adding fresh fuel every few hours, it dispenses with dust and ashes. The disadvantages are that the air in the room is not properly renewed, and also that the stove cools down so gradually that, before the inmate is aware, the temperature has dropped several degrees. On the wholc, I prefer the American base-burner.
Another indispensable article of furniture in a student's room is the Secretar, or secretary. This consists of three parts: the lower, a set of drawers; in the middle, a sort of door that can be let down, disclosing a fascinating arrangement of pigeonholes and very small drawers for storing away letters and papers and “traps " generally; up above, a cupboard.
The ceiling of E—'s room was scored in every direction. These marks, I was informed, were the scars of old sabre-wounds that had been left there by the former inmate. As the ceiling was rather low, a tall man in reaching out for Hochquart would be apt to graze the top of the room with the point of his sabre or his Schläger. The former inmate, judged by the number of tokens of his cxistence, that he had left, must have kept himself and his visitors in pretty thorough practice. Against the wall, in the corner opposite the stove, hung & pair of the instruments of destruction, with masks and gloves. In the third corner was the equally inevitable sofa,, upon which the student lies, off to enjoy his after-dinner pipe, and coffee. Over the sofa hung a picture of the Brunswick Corps, representing, in lithograph, the members of the corps holding their annual Commers. (celebration) at some place in the country, perhaps Mariæ Spring. Some arc sitting around a table, others are grouped picturesquely on. the grass, others again are standing; but every one has a long pipe, in one hand, and a Deckel-schoppen (large beer glass with a cover) in the other. E- was not a member of the corps, but he had been for some time a Conkneipant, i, e., one who attends the weekly meets ings when he feels disposed, and joins in the revelry; the picture, then, was a souvenir of his old friends. Around this large picture were grouped many smaller ones, all likenesses of German and American students. Scattered around the room were pipe-bowls, stems, ash-cups, "stoppers” (curious little arms and legs of porcelain for plugging the pipes), and the other paraphernalia of smoking. Nearly all these articles were gifts. The German plan of making presents, by the way, is a curious one, Jones and Smith, we will, suppose, agree to dedicate (dediciren) to each other. They select two, articles of exactly the same kind and value, say two porcelain pipebowls; each pays for the other and has the inscription put on: Jones, to his dear Smith, or Smith to his dear Jones (J. em.-In. S.) The advantage of the system is that you get a keepsake of your friend, without feeling that you have put yourself under obligations. Each, man gives as good as he gets.
What books E-possessed were stacked up in a rather rickety set of shelves under the sabres. Em was an industrious student, but, being a chemist, was not supposed to have need of a large library, His helps to study were in the University laboratory.
Every student in a university town occupies a room like the one that I have described. The room may be larger or smaller, may be located front or back, its furniture may be more or less elegant, but the general features do not vary. The point to which I desire to call, especial attention is this: every student, no matter how straitened, in circumstances, has a study and a sleeping-room exclusively to himself; “chumming" is unknown in Germany, except occasionally in the large cities, Berlin and Vienna, where the disproportionately high rents force a few of the poorer students to take apartments in common. But even in Berlin and Vienna, chumming is looked upon. as a last resort. The superiority of the German system is incalculable; it is more manly, it conduces to independence of study and prevents much waste of time. One who shares his room with a chum