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he exclaimed, “now we can talk up this matter of yours at our leisure."

Under ordinary circumstances, the offering of a cigar means very little. But when you call upon a great man for the first time, without any other recommendation than yourself and your own story, and he insists upon your smoking one of his best cigars, you may safely take for granted that he is kindly disposed toward you.

My visit was protracted until a late hour. The Geheimjustizrath had a great many questions to ask me, but they were about everything else than jurisprudence. He wished to know what I had seen of Switzerland and Germany; what I thought of the war in my own country (then approaching a crisis); how I liked Germany as compared with America. In fine, I passed a most delightful evening in easy conversation. I was treated, not as a student, scarcely even as a young man, but as a welcome guest, or as one who had presented strong letters of recommendation. I did not elicit any definite expression of opinion as to my chances of a degree. In truth, that was not what I expected. I knew enough of the ways of the world to refrain from urging the matter to an immediate decision, and to be satisfied, and more than satisfied with having created a favorable impression, and excited the interest of the most influential member of the Examining Faculty. On my taking leave, the Geheimjustizrath said: "Herr Hart, you must come and see me often, once a week. Come to tea, and then we can have the entire evening to ourselves. Just consider that as part of your legal education. I must become well acquainted with you."

On relating my experience to Dr. Maxen the next day, he said, ip his blunt, off-hand fashion: “Well, I think you will do. Keep on as you have begun."

I obeyed the Geheimjustizrath's friendly injunction to the letter. Scarcely a week passed without my dropping in to tea in an informal way. I always found the same hearty, unaffected welcome, and the same animated flow of conversation. The host was not merely a profound jurist, but thoroughly versed in the classics, and in the literature of his own country, and an amateur in art. His collection of engravings was not large, but it was very choice. I cannot better illustrate his genial character, and his thorough, unselfish appreciation of the best efforts of human genius in every line, than by nar. rating the following incident. One evening the conversation happened to turn upon Goethe. I believe that I introduced the subject by alluding to the great number of poets who had begun their career as students of the law, “ Ja, ja," said the Geheimjustizrath, Goethe, das war ein ganser, Kerl! You know of course, tinued, with a most mischievous twinkle in his eye, “you know, of course, his stupendous lines in Faust on the study of law.” I had read Faust, as already stated, very carefully in my second semes

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ter. But what with Pandects and Erbrecht, Practica, and Exegetica, the muses had been strictly banished from my thoughts for many a month. I had become a stranger to everything that could not be demonstrated logically from the corpus juris, and was forced to plead forgetfulness as to the passage in question. What," exclaimed my host, "you don't mean to say that you, a studiosus juris, have for. gotten the very best thing ever said by mortal man on the science of law ? Really, I must give it to you on the spot. Take it to heart.” Thereupon, assuming somewhat the pose of an actor on the stage, but not rising from his seat, he declaimed, from memory, in a rich, sonorous voice, and with the most expressive emphasis, the magnificent lines:

Es erben sich Gesetzt und Rechte
Wie eine ew'ge Krankheit fort,
Sie schleppen von Geschlecht sich zum Geschlechte,
Und rücken sacht von Ort zu Ort.
Vernuf! wird Unsinn, Wohithat Plage,
Weh Dir, dass Du ein Enkel bist!
Vom Rechte, das bei uns geboren ist,

Von Dem-ist leider nie die Frage :* “Now, just see how the great poet has hit the thing off. What venom there is in every line, in every word! And how the climax is reached in the line: Weh Dir, dass Du ein Enkel bist! Ha, ha! Not only has a man to bear the consequences of all the foolish legislation and stupid decisions of his own day and generation, but he is crushed with the accumulated burden of his father's and his grandfather's asininity. Isn't it sublime ? Ja, ja, der Goethe, das war ein verzweifelt schlauer Kerl, er wusste, was er sagen wollte.

Curriculum Vitae. Between the middle and the end of the summer semester, I made my formal application to the dean of the legal faculty to be admitted to examination for the degree of Doctor juris. The paper, or document, consisted of a concisely worded but full statement of the place and time of birth, and the schools and other institutions that I had attended in: America, and a more detailed account of my studies in Germany. I gave the titles of all the lecturers I had heard, all the text-books on law that I had read or was then reading, all the practical exercises that I had attended. Nothing was omitted that could help in putting my studies in the proper light. This curriculum vitae, as it is styled, concluded with a brief petition.

* The author, not finding a methodical rendering of the passage to his satisfaction, put the same into prose, as follows:

Our laws and legal systems do transmit themselves
Like an inherited disease ;
They drag themselves along from race to race,
And softly crawl from land to land,
What once was sense is turned to nonsense, the boon becomes a torment.
Alas for the, that thou art a grandchild!
The right that's born with us,

Of that-good lack-we never hear the mention.
The reader must bear in mind that the speaker is Mephistopheles, who, wrapped in
Faust's mantle

and seated in his chair, proceeds to give the young student advice us to his studies, and the respective merits of the different faculties.

Accompanying it was my Anmeldungsbuch, duly signed and certified by the professors whose lectures I had heard.

Conferment of Degree and the Treparation. At Göttingen—and I presume the same arrangement exists in the other universities--the conferment of degrees is in the hands of a limited number of the regular faculty in each department. This select body, called the Honoren-facultät, comprised, in the law faculty, five men, Kraut (then dean), Ribbentropp, Francke, Zachariae, and Briegleb. Ordinarily, the application for an examination is granted as of course. My petition, however, was a special onc, involving special concessions. In the first place, I had not studied law the ordinary number (six) of semesters. In the next place, I desired to be examined only in Roman, Canonical, and Criminal Law, with the exclusion of Practice and German Law. The faculty of honors in law at Göttingen was governed at that time by strict principles, and was not disposed to make any concessions that looked like lowering the standard of scholarship. Ribbentropp, I knew, was in favor of granting my request, and so was the dean, Kraut. With regard to Zachariae, I was not at all certain. The remaining two, Briegleb and Francke, were set against me. The latter, indeed, told me as much, saying very frankly that he did not believe that I had studied long enough and knew enough. Monday morning, as I was idling over my books and papers in a rather listless, because hopeless, frame of mind, I heard a heavy tramp down the passage-way leading to my room, The steps came nearer and nearer, there was a sharp, authoritative knock at my door. I answered, Herein, and one of the university beadles entered. Touching his cap with a half-military salute, he said: “Empfehlung von Herrn Hofrath Kraut, und er schickt Ihnen dieses, Hofrath Kraut sends you his compliments and this," handing me a slip of paper. On it was written, in curt, cabalistic characters:

Cap. Non est vobis (11) X de sponsal. (4,1).

1. Dedi 16 D. de condict. causa dat. (12, 4). Nothing more. Not a word of explanation; not even a signature. But it was enough. I knew that it was the summons, the token that my request for examination was granted. The paper contained the references to two passages, one from the corpus juris civilis, the other from the corpus juris canonici, upon which passages I was to prepare and hand in elaborate dissertations. Should these dissertations prove satisfactory, I must be admitted to the oral examination; if unsatisfactory, I was barred from applying again for a semester.

[The dissertations prepared with much painstaking, both in reading and writing, were accepted, and in the course of his remarks, our Student records his estimate of Blackstone and Kent's knowl. edge of Roman Law: “Coming to the study of the Commentaries fresh from my training in Göttingen, I was struck, nay more, thun..

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derstruck, with Blackstone's ignorance. It is scarely going too far to say that Blackstone, in a majority of the cases where he ventures upon some statement of Roman Law, is not only wrong, but grossly wrong; so far out of the way indeed, that one wonders how he could possibly have fallen into such a predicament. On the other hand, Chancellor Kent, who studied the Roman Law carefully and systematically, is a safe guide to follow. Knowing that law as an expert, not as an amateur, he has succeeded in applying its principles to the elucidation of our English system with a sureness of insight and a breadth of vision that may possibly be rivaled by some future disciple, but will never be surpassed.”]

Cramming. The dissertations thus disposed of, I suffered them to lie idle & while with a view to making verbal emendations from time to time, before submitting them to the dean, and turned my energies to the distasteful but indispensable labor of “cramming." The recollection of the days and weeks spent in this monotonous process, makes me feel, even at the present day, unspeakably discomforted. What should have been spread over four or five months, and taken in homepathic doses, had to be devoured in a few weeks. If there be one thing more than another to which I am opposed, on general principles, it is "cramming” for an examination. Not only is the brain worn out by the effort to master mere words and forms, but the chances are that when the object is attained, the examination over, one's dearly-bought knowledge will slip away nearly as fast as it came. The task before me was not to learn anything new, to develop new principles, to follow out some line of independent investigation, but to drum into my head definitions, names, dates, subdivisions of topics, exceptions, so as to be able to recite them glibly. This, of course, was not to be all the examination. But it would be undoubtedly a prominent part. Had I been able to prolong my stay until spring, I should have made things easier, by combining memorizing with collateral reading. As it was, I had to make the best of my limited time. The examiners, I knew, expected me to be thoroughly informed on certain subjects. Inasmuch as my examination would not cover the entire range of the law, but only so much as came under Roman and ecclesiastical jurisprudence, it behooved me to work up that portion all the more thoroughly, and thus prove to the examiners that they had not acted indiscreetly in giving me a trial. Being favored, I was under especial obligations. So I sacrificed my general principles to the needs of the situation, and “crammed ” to the best of my ability.

As has been already mentioned, I had reduced my notes and portions of certain text books to a compact and manageable shape. Allowing ten hours a day for four weeks, I drew up an elaborate schedule of study. So many hours or portions of hours every day were assigned to this topic, so many to that. I learned everything by heart, by sheer dint of repetition. Not being endowed by nature with a good memory, I had to proceed slowly and very systematically, catechising myself at every step. The three main subjects were Erbrecht, Criminal Law, and Ecclesiastical Law. To the first I gave two hours and a half every day, to the two others two hours each. The remaining three hours and a half were split up in miscellaneous cram. The process was anything but an intellectual one. It consisted in going over the memoranda again and again until I had made sure of every point.

At the end of three or four weeks, I was surprised to see how much progress I had made, and how the memory had trained itself to retain names and dates and divisions, No one can realize the extent to which the memory can be trained, until he has tried, for himself the experiment of memorizing an extensive and complicated subject. At first, the attempt seems hopeless. Names and rules slip in by the eyes and out again by the ears. What was learned one day, is forgotten the next. But the reader, if he does not know. it already through his own experience, may take my word for it, that there will come a time when the knowledge sticks. Minor, points may need occasional revision, but the solid frame-work of the subject will acquire a firm foothold in the memory. The subject itself has passed into the student's mind, it forms part and parcel of his very being, and cannot be dislodged, not even at will. What has been, "crammed ” into the memory, haunts the crammer like Banquo's ghost, thrusting up its hateful head on the most unseasonable occasions. At this stage of the work, it is a problem to decide whether the student has mastered the subject, or the subject the student,

By the middle of October, but for one unfortunate circumstance, I might have announced myself ready for the examination. (This circumstance was, he broke down in health.) The week before the opening of the winter semester, I began to be conscious of a total. want of energy, and an inability to keep my mind fixed on one subject for longer than half an hour. I could neither sleep by night nor rest by day, and was nervous to the last degree. It became evident to me that this was no fit state of mind or body in which to encounter a severe examination. The nervousness assumed such a violent shape that I suspected an attack of chills and fever, or possibly something worse. The physician, however, assured me that it was only a temporary prostration, and could be cured by, rest and change of air, but by nothing else. To attempt to go on with my work would be downright madness. Fortunately no day had yet been set for the examination, neither were there many candidates at that time. Both Ribbentropp and Kraut, whom I consulted more as friends than as professors, advised me by all means to drop everything and take a vacation. “It will make very little, if any, difference to us,"

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