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tion (Baris), and descended upon the soft mold, which, when plowed up with their heels, was termed čoxappiva. The better to poise their bodies and enable them to bound to a greater distance, they carried in their hands metallic weights, denominated halteres, in the form of a semi disk, baving on their inner faces handles like the thong of a shield, through which the fingers were passed. Extraordinary feats are related of these ancient leapers. Chionis the Spartan, and Phayllos the Crotonian, being related to have cleared at one bound the space of fifty-two, or according to others, fifty-five feet.
Disk-Bow-Javelin. The disk in later times varied greatly both in shape, size, and materials. Generally it would seem to have been a cycloid, swelling in the middle and growing thin toward the edges. Sometimes it was perforated in the center and hurled forward by a thong, and on other occasions would appear to have approached the spherical form, when it was denominated solos.
Other of these exercises were shooting with the bow at wisps of straw stuck upon a pole, and darting the javelin, sometimes with the naked hand and sometimes with a thong wound about the center of the weapon. In the stadium at Olympia, the area within which the pentathli leaped, pitched the quoit, and hurled the javelin, appears to have been marked out by two parallel trenches.
Wrestling. Wrestling consisted of two kinds, the first, called Orthopale, was that style, still commonly in use, in which the antagonists, throwing their arms about each other's body, endeavored to bring him to the ground. In the other, called Anaclinopale, the wrestler, who distrusted his own strength but had confidence in his courage and powers of endurance, voluntarily flung himself upon the ground, bringing his adversary along with him, and then by pinching, scratch. ing, biting, and every other species of annoyance, sought to compel him to yield.
An example of wrestling in both its forms occurs in Homer, where Ajax Telamon and Odysseus contend in the funeral games for the prize :
Amid the ring ench nervous rival stands,
IV. ECONOMICS, OR DOMESTIC TRAINING OF WOMEN. In the Economics of Xenophon, Socrates is introduced in conversation with Critobulus, on the Science of Good Husbandry, which in this treatise covers the good ordering of a house, and all that relates to it, by the head of a family,
Soc.—But I suppose I should first tell you, good Critobulus, of a discourse i once had with a man who might truly be called good and honest; for it will assist in what you desire.
Cril.-I shall be glad to hear that discourse, which may inform me how to gain the worthy name of a truly good and honest man.
Soc.—When I first saw him, I found him sitting in a portico of one of the temples alone; and as I concluded he was then at leisure, I placed myself by him, and addressed myself to him in the following manner:
"Good Ischomachus, I much wonder to see you thus unemployed, whose industry leads you ever to be stirring for the good of some one or other.'— Nor should you now have found me here, good Socrates,' said Ischomachus, 'if I had not appointed some strangers to meet me at this place.'—'And if you had not been here,' said Socrates, 'where would you have been? or, I pray you, how would you have employed yourself? for I wish to learn what it is that you do to gain the character from all people of a good and honest man: the good complexion of your features seems to denote that you do not always confine yourself at home.' At this, Ischomachus, smiling, seemed to express a satisfaction in what I had said, and replied: 'I know not that people give me the character of a good and honest man, for when I am obliged to pay money either for taxes, subsidies, or on other occasions, the people call me plainly Ischomachus: and for what you say concerning my not being much at home, you conjecture right, for my wife is capable of ordering such things as belong to the house.'— But pray tell me,' said Socrates, 'did you instruct your wife how to manage your house, or was it her father and mother that gave her sufficient instructions to order a house before she came to you ?'—'My wife,' answered Ischomachus, was but fifteen years old when I married her; and till then she had been so negligently brought up, that she hardly knew any thing of worldly affairs '— I suppose,' said Socrates, 'she could spin, and card, or set her servants to work.'—' As for such things, good Socrates,' replied Ischomachus, 'she had her share of knowledge.'— ‘And did you teach her all the rest, said Socrates, 'which relates to the management of a house ?'—'I did,' replied Ischomachus, “but not before I had implored the assistance of the gods, to show me what instructions were necessary for her; and that she might have a heart to learn and practice those instructions to the advantage and profit of us both.'—'But, good Ischomachus, tell me,' said Socrates, did your wife join with you in your petition to the gods ??— Yes,' replied Ischomachus, 'and I looked upon that to be no bad omen of her disposition to receive such instructious as I should give her.'—'I pray you, good Ischomachus, tell me,' said Socrates, what was the first thing you began to show her? for to hear that, will be a greater pleasure to me, than if you were to describe the most triumphant feast that had ever been celebrated.'—*To begin then, good Socrates, when we were well enough acquainted, and were so familiar that we began to converse freely with one another, I asked her for what reason she thought I had takea her to be my wife, that it was not purely to make her a
partner of my bed, for that she knew I had women enough already at my command; but the reason why her father and mother had consented she should be mine, was because we concluded ber a proper person to be a partner in my house and children : for this end I informed her it was, that I chose her before all other women ; and with the same regard her father and mother chose me for her husband : and if we should be so much favored by the gods that she should bring me children, it would be our business jointly to consult about their education, and how to bring them up in the virtues becoming mankind; for then we may expect them to be profitable to us, to defend us, and comfort us in our old age. I farther added, that our house was now common to us both, as well as our estates; for all that I had I delivered into her care, and the same she did likewise on her part to me; and likewise that all these goods were to be employed to the advantage of us both, without upbraiding one or the other, which of the two had brought the greatest fortune; but let our study be, who shall contribute most to the improvement of the fortunes we have brought together; and accordingly wear the honor they may gain by their good management.
"To this, good Socrates, my wife replied, “How can I help you in this ? or wherein can the little power I have do you any good ? for my mother told me, both my fortune, as well as yours, 'was wholly at your command, and that it must be my chief care to live virtuously and soberly."—"This is true, good wife," answered Ischomachus, “but it is the part of a sober husband and virtuons wife to join in their care, not only to preserve the fortune they are possessed of, but to contribute equally to improve it." --"And what do you see in me," said the wife of Ischomachus, " that you believe me capable of assisting in the .improvement of your fortune ?"_“Use your endeavor, good wife," said Ischomachus, " to do those things which are acceptable to the gods, and are appointed by the law for you to do."_"And what things are those, dear husband?" said the wife of Ischomachus. “They are things," replied he, " which are of no small concern, unless you think that the bee which remains always in the hite is unemployed: it is her part to oversee the bees that work in the hive, while the others are abroad to gather wax and honey; and it is, in my opinion, a great favor of the gods to give us such lively examples, by such little creatures, of our duty to assist one another in the good ordering of things; for, by the example of the bees, a husband and wife may see the necessity of being concerned together toward the promoting and advancing of their stock: and this union botween the man and woman is no less necessary to prevent the decay and loss of mankiud, by producing children which may help to comfort and nourish their parents in their old age. It is ordained also for some creatures to live in houses, while it is as necessary for others to be abroad in the fields: wherefore it is convenient for those who have houses and would furnish them with necessary provisions, to provide men to work in their fields, either for tilling the ground, sowing of grain, planting of trees, or grazing of cattle; nor is it less necessary, when the harvest is brought in, to take care in the laying our corn and fruits up properly, and disposing of them discreetly. Little children must be brought up in the house, bread must be made in the house, and all kinds of meats must be dressed in the house; likewise spinning, carding, and weaving, are all works to be done within doors; so that both the things abroad, and those within the house, require the utmost care and diligence; and it appears plainly, by many natural instances, that the woman was born to look after such things as are to be done within the house: for a man naturally is strong of body, and capable of enduring the fatigue of heat and cold, of traveling and undergoing the harsher exercise ; so that it seems as if nature had appointed him to look after the affairs without doors: the woman being also to nurse and bring up children, she is naturally of a more soft and tender nature than the man; and it seems likewise that nature has given the woman a greater share of jealousy and fear than to the man, that she may be more careful and watchful over those things which are intrusted to her care; and it seems likely, that the man is naturally made more hardy and bold than the woman, because his business is abroad in all seasons, and that he may defend himself against all assaults and accidents. But because both the man and the woman are to be together for both their advantages, the man to gather his substance from abroad, and the woman to manage and improve it at home, they are indifferently endowed with memory and diligence. It is natural also to both to refrain from such things as may do them harm, and likewise they are naturally given to improve in every thing they study, by practice and experience; but as they are not equally perfect in all things, they have the more occasion of one another's assistance: for when the man and woman are thus united, what the one has occasion for is supplied by the other: therefore, good wife, seeing this is what the gods have ordained for us, let us endeavor, to the utmost of our powers, to behave ourselves in our several stations to the improvement of our fortune; and the law, which brought us together, exhorts us to the same purpose. And also, as it is natural, when we are thus settled, to expect children, the law exhorts us to live together in unity, and to be partakers of one another's benefits: 80 nature, and the law which is directed by it, ordains that each severally should regard the business that is appointed for them. From whence it appears, that it is more convenient for a woman to be at home and mind her domestic affairs, than to gad abroad; and it is as shameful for a man to be at home idling, when his business requires him to be abroad: if any man acts in a different capacity from that he is born to, he breaks through the decrees of nature, and will certainly meet his punishment, either because he neglects the business which is appointed for him, or because he invades the property of another. I think that the mistress bee is. an excellent example for the wife.”—“And what is the business of the mistress bee," said the wife of Ischomachus, “ that I may follow the example of that which you so much recommend to me, for it seems you have not yet fully explained it ?"—"The mistress bee," replied Ischomachus, "keeps always in the hive, taking care that all the bees, which are in the hive with her, are duly employed in their several occupations; and those whose business lies abroad, she sends out to their several works. These bees, when they bring home their burden, she receives, and appoints them to lay up their harvest, till there is occasion to use it, and in a proper season dispenses it among those of her colony, according to their several offices. The bees who stay at home, she employs in disposing and ordering the combs, with a neatness and regularity becoming the nicest observation and greatest prudence. She takes care likewise of the young bees, that they are well nourished, and educated to the business that belongs to them; and wheu they are come to such perfection that they are able to go abroad and work for their living, she sends them forth under the direction of a proper leader.”—"And is this my business, dear Ischomachus ?" said his wife.—“This example, good wife," replied Ischomachus, “is what I give you as a lesson worthy
your practice: your case requires your presence at home, to send abroad the servants whose business lies abroad, and to direct those whose business is in the house. You must receive the goods that are brought into the bouse, and distribute such a part of them as you thiuk necessary for the use of the family, and see that the rest be laid up till there be occasion for it; and especially avoid the extravagance of using that in a month which is appointed for twelve months' service. When the wool is brought home, observe that it be carded and spun for weaving into cloth; and particularly take care that the corn, which is brought in, be not laid up in such a manner that it grow musty and unfit for use. But, above all, that which will gain you the greatest love and affection from your servants, is to help them when they are visited with sickness, and that to the utmost of your power." Upon which his wife readily answered, “That is surely an act of charity, and becoming every mistress of good nature; for, I suppose, we can not oblige people more than to help them when they are sick: this will surely engage the love of our servants to us, and make them doubly diligent upon every occasion.”—This answer, Socrates,' said Ischomachus, ' was to me an argument of a good and honest wife ; and I replied to her, “That by reason of the good care and tenderness of the mistress bee, all the rest of the hive are so affectionate to her, that whenever she is disposed to go abroad, the whole colony belonging to her, accompany, and attend upon her.”—To this the wife replied: "Dear Ischomachus, tell me sincerely, is not the business of the mistress bee, you tell me of, rather what you ought to do, than myself; or have you not a share in it? For my keeping at home and directing my servants, will be of little account, unless you send home such provisions as aro necessary to employ us."'—" And my providence,” answered Ige. chomachus, " would be of little use unless there is one at home who is ready to receive and take care of those goods that I send in. Have you not observed," said Ischomachus, "wbat pity people show to those who are punished by pouring water into sieves till they are full ? The occasion of pity is, because those people labor in vain.”—“I esteem these people," said the wife of Ischomachus, "to be truly miserable, who have no benefit from their labors.”—“Suppose, dear wife," replied Ischomachus, "you take into your service one who can neither card nor spin, and you teach her to do those works, will it not be an honor to you? Or if you take a servant which is negligent, or does not understand how to do her business, or has been subject to pilfering, and you make her diligent, and instruct her in the manners of a good servant, and teach her honesty, will not you rejoice in your success ? and will you not be pleased with your action ? So again, when you see your servants sober and discreet, you should encourage them and show them favor; but as for those who are incorrigible and will not follow your directions, or prove larcenaries you must punish them. Consider how laudable it will be for you to excel others in the wellordering your house; be therefore diligent, virtuous, and modest, and give your necessary attendance on me, your children, and your house, and your name shall be honorably esteemed, even after your death; for it is not the beauty of your face and shape, but your virtue and goodness, which will bring you honor and esteem, which will last for ever.”—“After this manner, good Socrates,' cried Ischomachus, 'I first discoursed with my wife concerning her duty and care of my house."