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continue disputing till three of the clock in the afternoon; so that upon his appearance more auditors were then present than since have usually appeared at those exercises.' In his Diary, however, d. Wad thus comments on the conduct of Dr. Fell:

* 1683, F 6. 17. Egg Saturday, but one Bachelor of Vag. hall presented ad determinanıtım, whereas since the king's return they were never without 6 or 8 or 2, and Exeter College not one, who used to have commonly 1.. About 20 matriculated before Eyg Saturday for Lent term.

•1.0 Bachelors determine, whereas there never used to be under 200. Laut d spitstums decay, the bachelors don't dispute, or will not, unless the superiors (boyish regents) are present; some senior masters go to hear disputations, particularly Mr. Huntingdon, after his long absence, but they will not dispute, and stand silent, while their abetters sncer and grin; this ue got by having coursing put do wn by Dr. Fell.'

Doing Austin's, The Wall Lectures-Circuiting. The obsolete exercise of 'doing Austin's' is said to have derived its name from the custom of scholars disputing with the Augustine monks, who had acquired a great reputation for cxercises of this kind. They are termed in the old Oxford Statutes, Disputationes in Augustinensibus. The Proctor chose his colector in Austin's, who had the power of matching disputants together at his own discretion, and was expected to provide entertainment for the bachelors and their friends.

In 1679 Wood exclaimed, 'Is it not a shame that it should be accounted unusual for scholars to go to Augustin's disputations, and that the masters of the schools speak English to them?'... 'This Lent the collectors ceased from entertaining the bachelors by advice and command of the proctors. Van der Hwyden of Oriel was then a collector; so that now they got by their collectorships, whereas before they spent about £100 besides their gains, on cloaths or needless entertainments.'


The Act at Oxford (on the first Tuesday in July) was properly only a solemn season for the conclusion of academical exercises and for full adinission to degrees.

COMMEMORATION (which fell nearly at the same time of the year and which gow lends its name to the ceremony for conferring honorary degrees, the recitation of prize compositions in the Sheldonian Theatre, and the display of gayety and hospitality which of old accompanied the public Act, is, strictly speaking, the Encaenin, or Celebration of Founders and Benefactors, how held in June, in the Theatre (which was opened formally July 9, 1669. In the Gentleman's Mugazine, for 1750, is a description of Oxford Commemoration in that year. "Monday, July 2. The Doctors &c. were entertained at Lord Crewe's expense in New College Hall. At 4 o'clock there was a pa cession to the theatre. Juric was performed. The orator stood in the rostrim which had been moved into the centre of the aren. Letters from the Chancellor were read, and an honorary degree conferred on the Rt. Hon. Earl of Plymouth The orator's sprech lasted above an hour. An odle set by Professor Hays (Wiliam Hayes who was succeeded by Piilip Hayes in 1777). The theatre was quite full, a very handsome appearance of ladies; and the whole was conducted with great decorum.'

(The demonstrations of boyi-h rudeness—the yelling, hissing, and other vulgar impertinences generally on (ommemoration Day, and the wasteful extravagances in all sorts of social entertainments during Commemoration Week-have reached a point which calls for Parliamentary interference, if the University authorities cannot control the Undergraduates in these respects.]

The Butteries and Dinner Hour as they were. Wordsworth devotes several pages of his University Life to College Fare, and College Barbers, from which we give extracts :

The college fare was simple, i.e., it consisted of less variety of viands than at present. In his sermon at Paules crosse in 1550, Thomas Lever, Fellow and Preacher of St. John's, told of those menne not werye of theyr paynes' at Cambridge, whose first meal was when 'at ten of the clocke they go to dynner, whereas they be contente wyth a penye pyece of byefe amongest liii., hanyng a fewe porage made of the brothe of the saine byefe, wyte salte and otemell, and nothynge els. Their only other food was taken at v. of the clocke in the euenyng, when as they haue a supper not much better then theyr dyner.' It was one of Sir Tho. More's humorous proposals to his children when he resigned the Chancellorship to retrench their expenses by degrees from Lincoln's Inn diet to the new Inn fare, and so on at last to the Oxford fare, which if our power stretch not to maintaine, then may we like poore schollers of Oxforde goe a begging with our bags and wallets and sing salve regina at rich mens doores, where for pitie some goode folkes will give us their mercifull charitie; and so keep companie and be merrie togeather.

The 16th of Sundry Queries concerning the University of Oxon., &c., London, Printed by Thomas Creeke, 1659, asks, Whether the Canons of Christ Church ought not to eat the bread of affliction and drink the water of affliction; since they refuse to eat the same bread and drink the same drink with the rest of the college, which indeed is bad as never was worse eaten or drunk but by the same canons before they came to be canons.'

In 1662, writing to his mother John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian, whilst & student of Jesus college, gives the following account of Cambridge fare :

Do not wonder so much at our commons: they are more than many colleges have. Trinity itself (where Herring and Davies are), which is the famousest college in the University, have but three halfpence. We have roast meat, dinner and supper throughout the weeke; and such meate as you know I had not use to care for; and that is Veal : but now I have learnt to eat it. Sometimes neverthelesse, we have boiled meat, with pottage; and beef and mutton, which I am glad of: except Fridays and Saturdays, and sometimes Wednesdays; which days we have Fish at dinner, and tansy or pudding for supper. Our parts then are slender enough. But there is this remedy; we may retire into the Butteries, and there take a half-penny loafe and butter or cheese ; or else to the Kitchen and take there what the Cook hath. But, for my part, I am sure, I never visited tho Kitchen yet, since I have been here, and the Butteries but seldom after meals; unlesse for a Ciza (or Size, or Sice) that is for a Farthing worth of Small-Beer: 80 that lesse than a Peny in Beer doth serve me a whole day. Neverthelesse sometimes we have Exceedings : then we have two or three Dishes (but that is very rare): otherwise never but one: so that a Cake and a Cheese would be very welcome to me; and a Neat's tongue, or some such thing; if it would not require too much money. . .Mother, I kindly thank you for your Orange pills you sent me. If you are not too straight of money, send me some such thing by the Woman, and a pound or two of Almonds and Raisons...We go twice a day to chapel; in the morning about 7, and in the evening about 5. After we come from Chapel in the morning, which is towards 8, we go to the Butteries for our breakfast, which is usually five Farthings; an halfepenny loafe and butter and a cize of beer. But sometimes I go to an honest House near the College, and have a pint of milk boiled for breakfast.'

of the monotony of Cambridge dinners in 1710 Uffenbach complained ; as well as of the closeness of Trinity college hall, which smelt so of bread and meat that he was sure he could not eat a morsel in it. Francis Burman, who was there in 1702, mentions that at a grand dinner the dishes, with few exceptions, were square wooden platters : (still partially used at Winchester).

The Hon. Roger North, writing, I suppose, between 1720 and 1730, compares the state of the

University in his own days with that when his elder brother, the Hon. and Rev. Dr. John North, was Fellow of Jesus Coll., Cambridge, before he succeeded Dr. Barrow as Master of Trinity :

The Doctor conformed to all the orders of the college, seldom ate out of hall, and then upon a fish day only, being told it was for his health. He was constantly at the chapel prayers, so much as one may say that, being in town (Cambridge) he never failed. This, in the morning, secured his time; for he went from thence directly to his study without any sizing or breakfast at all.'

I gather from the Cook's accounts at Peterhouse that in the 17th century rarely more than one joint appeared at the Fellows' table, and on Fridays fish only. It was, perhaps, the Master of that House, Dr. Cosin, or Dr. Sterne of Jesus, who represented to Apb. Laud in 1636, that upon Frydays and all Fasting days, the victualing houses prepare Flesh good store for all Schollers and others that will come or send unto them, and the Tutors allow double money for suppers on those days. At Peterhouse, after the Revolution, the custom of eating fish on Fridays remained, but it was in addition to the ordinary provision of meat.

* It was the custom for colleges, and indeed for most other people, till towards the middle of the 17th century, to dine at ten or eleven o'clock in the forenoon. " With us (says the preface to Hollingshed) the nobilitie, gertrie, and students, do ordinarilie

go to dinner at eleven before noone, and to supper at five, or between five and six, at afternoone. The merchants dine and sup seldome before twelve at noone and six at night, especiallie in London. The husbandmen dine also at high-noone, as they call it, and sup at seven or eight; but out of the terme in our universities, the scholors dine at ten." ?

On Feb. 10, 1721-2, Hearne wrote in his diary. Whereas the university disputations on Ash Wednesday should begin at 1 o'clock, they did not begin this year till two or after, which is owing to several colleges having altered their hours of dining from 11 to 12, occasioned from peoples lying in bed longer than they used to do.' So a year later he laments that whereas Oxford scholars were summoned to meals at 10 o'clock on Shrove Tuesday by the pancake-bell at S. Mary's, and at 4 o'clock; at Edmund hall dinner was now at 12 and supper at 6, and no fritters. When laudable old customs alter 'tis a sign learning dwindles.' So on Christmas Day, 1732, the University Sermon was, by order of the Vice-Chancellor, advertised not to begin till 11 o'clock, 'the reason given was sermons in coll

. chapels. This reason might also have been given formerly. But the true reason is that people might lye in bed the longer. They used formerly to begin in chapels an hour sooner, and then they were ready for the university sermon. The same reason, viz., lying a-bed the longer hath made them in almost all places in the university alter the hours of prayers on other days, and the hour of dinner (which used to be i o'clock) in almost every place (Christ Church must be excepted) in the university where ancient discipline, and learning, and piety, strangely decay.'

In 1747, Dr. ki. Newton's rule for Hertford college (p. 70) was dinner at 1, supper at 7. 'He proposed to provide 1 lb. of meat per man, value not exceeding threepence (which was double the existing price)." He attempted also to obviate an abuse such he had witnessed where the ten seniors would eat all, and leave the ten juniors to dine "abroad in Public-Houses at four times the Expence attended with Other Inconveniences.'

At Cambridge in 1755, and for many years after, every college dined at 12 o'clock, and the students after dinner flocked to the philosophical disputations which began at 2. At St. John's, in 1799, it was agreed that the hour for dinner be 2 o'clock during non-term.' In D'Ewes' time, 1620, during Sturbridge fair, they swallowed down their dinner at 9 o'clock, and having quickly ended by reason of short commons, the greater part of the undergraduates did run presently to the fair.' At Emmanuel the hour was changed from 1 to 3 about the year 1783. This arrangement tended to thin the attendance in the divinity schools when Dr. Watson was moderating. At Trinity, in 1800, it was at 2h. 15m. On Sundays it was at a quarter past i, and the sermon at St. Mary's, which was well attended by students, was at 3 o'clock. The Vice-Chancellor's weekly dinner parties were at 1.30, and all his company accompanied him to St. Mary's. At Oxford, in 1804, 1805, those colleges which had dined at 3 advanced to 4, those which had dined at 4 to 5. In 1807, Southey's Espriella (letter xxxii.) speaks of dining with a friend in hall: 'instead of assembling there at the grace, we went into the kitchen, where each person ordered his own mess from what the cook provided, every thing having its specific price. The students order their messes according to seniority ; but this custom was waived in our friend's favor in courtesy to us strangers.' This was at Balliol.

Breakfast was a meal which saw strange revolutions : it became a more serious meal as the dinner hour waxed later. Whilst Dr. John North was at Jesus college, Cambridge, coffee was not of such common use as afterward, and the coffeehouses but young. At that time, and long after, there was but one, kept by oze Kirk. The trade of news also was scarce set up; for they had only the public gazette till Kirk got a written news-letter circulated by one Muddiman. But now (cir. 1725), the case is much altered; for it is become a custom after chapel, to repair to one or other of the coffee-houses (for there are divers) where hours are spent in talking; and less profitable reading of newspapers, of which swarms are continually supplied from London. And the scholars are so greedy after news (which is none of their business), that they neglect all for it; and it is become very rare for any of them to go directly to his chambers after prayers, withont doing his suit at the coffee-house; which is a vast loss of time grown out of a pure novelty, for who can apply close to a subject

At the close of the last century it was usual at Cambridge to take some relaxa

tion after dinner, to go to chapel at half-past five, then to retire to their rooms, shut the outer door, take tes, and read till 10 or 11' o'clock.

At Trinity, there was supper in hall at a quarter before 9 o'clock, but very few partook of it

. There was always supper on Sunday evening at Cambridge (often in the Combination-room) for the benefit of those clerical Fellows who had been 'taking duty' in the country. This is still kept up at King's as the Samaritan Supper.' li was also called, from the only dish (of 'mutton) which was provided, Neck or Nothing.' At St. John's it was known as the Curates' Club:' at Christ's the meeting was designated 'the Apostolic: there the supper was always tripe dressed in various ways.'

With undergraduates, supper was the favorite meal of sociality: At 8 P.M. the 'Sizing Bell was rung to show that the 'Sizing Bill' was ready: This was a bill of fare for the evening, with the prices marked. Each guest of the 'Sizing-party! ordered, at his own expense, whatever he fancied, to be carried to the entertainer's rooms ;-'a part of fowl' or duck; a roasted pigeon; 'a part of apple pie, &c. The host supplied bread, butter, cheese, and beer, a

beaker,' or a large tea-pot full of punch, which was kept upon the hob. These tea-pots' were of various sizes (some of them enormous), and supplied by the bedmakers, who charged according to size. Nothing could be more unexceptionable than these meetings.' Wine was not allowed.

A supper at Trinity, Oxon., in 1792, is described as commencing at 9 o'clock (after tea at 6) with

Boiled fowl, salt herrings, sausages,
Cold beef and brown and bread and cheese

With Taokards full of Ale.

There it was the custom for men, of the same college as the host, to pay for his own share of the dessert at & wine party.

University and College Barbers. One custom prevailed at both Universities,—a custom which has become obsolete,--that of regularly dressing for dinner. 'Every one arrayed himself in white waistcoat, and white stockings, and low shoes ; (for boots or gaiters were not allowed to be worn at dinner time at Trinity, or at St. John's, even in the early part of the present century); and his wig-or, latterly, his own hair-was combed, curled, and powdered.

The University Barber in old days was no mean practitioner. At Oxford, theirs was the only trade which might be followed by matriculated persons; and the Members of the Company of Barbers, which existed till 1859, dined once a year with the Vice-Chancellor, and supped annually with the Proctors. They had been incorporated by the Chancellor in 1348: one stipulation being that they should maintain a light before the image in our Lady's Chapel in St. Frideswyde's;

another, that they should not work on Sundays, only on the market Sundays in harvest time, nor shave any, but such as were to preach or do a religious act, on the Sundays in any part of the year.

It was the duty of the College Barber, who was a regular servant of the society, to attend to the tonsure of the clerks of the foundation.

In post-reformational times, this functionary appeared daily before hall time to powder the Fellows' wigs. As lately as 1775, there was a barber's shop just within Trinity gate, near the Bishop's Hostel, where their wigs were dressed ; whence a wag abstracted them one Saturday night and placed them upon the heads of the statues upon the roof of the library. This must have been especially mortifying to their owners, because Sunday was a great occasion for the display of capillary attraction : so much so that in 1728, the Vice-Chancellor had issued a programma 'to All and Singular Barbers,' forbidding them to ply their trade upon that day: just as · His Highness the Lord Protector' had done some 85 years earlier; when by a proclamation he also forbade 'vainly and profanely walking' on the Sabbath.

When Shenstone the poet was at Pembroke Coll., Oxon., it was with some personal inconvenience that he transgressed the reigning fashion of wigs, by wearing his own long hair in the way which was afterward practiced at Cambridge by Prince William of Glo'ster, to whom, as to others who did the same, was applica the nickname Apollo.

A year before he and Johnson had lain in the perfect nest of singing-hirds,' another eminent man at the same college (Pembroke), George Whitefield the servitor, had gone with unkempt hair from a very different motive,-because he thought it unbecoming a penitent to have it powdered.' So too his exemplar, John Wesley of Christ church, had saved barber's fees to give to the poor: 'and it is recorded that the only instance of his deferring to the advice of another was when his brother Sam persuaded him to have the ends off.

Salting Freshmen. However free Cambridge may now be of foolish and even cruel buffooneries toward freshmen, there was a time at both the English Universities when all new comers were subjected a mock ceremony of initiation called salting.* Anthony Wood describes his own initiation at Merton. He had been entered upon the books on St. Luke's day (Oct. 18): and from Allhallow e'en (Nov. 1) till Christmas there were charcoal fires in the hall a little after 5 p.m. The senior undergradnates would make the freshmen sit on a form, and one by one'speake some pretty apothegme, or make a jest or bull, or speake some eloquent nonsense to make the company langh. If any were unsuccessful, some of the forward or pragmatical seniors would tuck him:' i.e., would wound his lower lip with the nail of the thumb, by pressing the lip with the other fingers on the same.

About Candlemas-day (Feb. 2, Feast of the Purification) all freshmen were instracted to preparo their speeches to be declaimed before the undergraduates and servants in hall on Shrove Tuesday. The Fellows got over their supper early and left the field clear, with an admonition that all things should be carried in good order.' The cook prepared the lesser brass pot full of cawdel' at the freshmen's expense, and each freshman in order had to'pluck off his gowne and band, and, if possibly, to make himself look like a scoundrell.'+ Then a travestie of the academic exercises was performed. The victim had to stand on a form on the high-table, and to speak his speech. After which he was rewarded, according as he had acquitted himself well, indifferently, or ill, by having a draft administered to him of cawdel,' cawdel and salt, or salt and beer alone (whence, possibly, the expression of paying for one's salt), with tucks to boot.' Afterward the senior cook administered an oath over an old shoe. The only fragment of the formula remaining is

Item tu jurabis, quod penniless benck non visitabis. (This was a stone seat for loungers in the market, a sort of idle corner.) The shoe being kist, the Freshman put on his gowne and band and took his place among the Seniors.

At the salting at Pembroke college in August, 1620, one of the fathers (senior sophs), and two or three of the sons, did excellently well.' 'A great deal of beer, as at all such meetings, was drunk.'

There is an old Statute prohibiting the caeremonia saliendi recentes scholasticos. At St. John's they had exceedings in hall on the occasion, and there was a charge for salting in the tutor's bill, 28. 4d. When the Earl of Essex was at Trinity college, Cambridge, he was charged, in 1577, ‘at the saltinge accordinge to the custome, vijs.' Something of the kind seems to have lingered as the Fresk Treat, for which freshmen paid Fresh Fees at St. John's, Oxon., in 1714.

Martyn, in his Life of the First Lord Shaftesbury, records that when the senior undergraduates of Exeter College, Oxford, undertook to subject him to the indignity of having his chin scraped by a Senior with the nail of the thumb, left long for this purpose, and then to drink a beer-glass of water and salt, he organized resistance among his fellow freshmen, which resulted in a general row in the College-hall, that could only be quelled by the master, Dr. Prideaux, and led to the abolition of the custom.

• This ceremony of initiation seems to belong to all institutions which have a succession of new classes ; and it degenerates invariably from buffoonery to cruelty, until its excesses are repressed by higher authority, or the spirit of general courtesy pervades the institution. An account of the brutal customs of deposition and of pennalism in the old German Universities may be found in Barnard's American Journal of Education. Vol. VI., 52.

• Scoundrell here means tramp, or blackguard.

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