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two are four ;" “ the fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books." Prepositions also, as before observed, connect words ; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other : conjunctions, when they unite words only, are designed to show the re lations, which those words, so united, have to other parts of the sentence.

As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence; so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that are equally adapted to both those purposes : as, again, further, besides, &c. of the first kind; than, lest, unless, that, so that, &c. of the second; and brut, and, for, therefore, &c. of the last.

We shall close this chapter with a few observations on the peculiar use and advantage of the conjunctions ; a subject which will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious stus dent, and expand his views of the importance of his gram matical studies.

“Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjunctions. The former make speech more concise ; the latter make it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the meaning of a pronoun and conjunction copulative : conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences. The same. thing is true of barbarous nations: and hence.uncultivated languages are not well supplied with connecting particles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared

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in the world, and their language, accordingly, abounds more than any other in connectives.

Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may be proper to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Books of aphorisms, kike tbe Proverbs of Solomon, have few connectives; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in detached observations. And narrative will sometimes appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly told, with scarcely any other conjunction than the simple sopulative and: which is frequently the case in the historical parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by crowding the principal words upon one another, give a sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced down through their consequences, or upwards to their causes; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them ; when the historian argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties, there will be occasion for every species of connective, as much as in philosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, · and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indig

pensably necessary."

CHAPTER X..

Of Interjections. INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker: as, “Oh! I have alienated my friend ; alas ! I fear for life :” “ O virtue' bow amiable thou art !"

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two are four ;" " the fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books.” Prepositions also, as before observed, connect words; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other : conjunctions, when they unite words only, are designed to show the re lations, which those words, 80 united, have to other parts of the sentence.

As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence; so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that are equally adapted to both those purposes : as, again, further, besides, &c. of the first kind; than, lest, unless, that, so that, &c. of the second, and but, and, for, therefore, &c. of the last.

We shall close this chapter with a few observations on the peculiar use and advantage of the conjunctions; a subject which will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious stus dent, and expand his views of the importance of his grammatical studies.

“Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjunctions. The former make speech more concise ; the latter make it more explicit., Relatives comprehend the meaning of a pronoun and conjunction copulative : conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences.

The same thing is true of barbarous nations: and hence.uncultivated : languages are not well supplied with connecting particles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared.

in the world, and their language, accordingly, abounds more than any other in connectives.

Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may be proper to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Books of aphorisms, like the Proverbs of Solomon, have few connectives; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in detached observations. And narrative will sometimes appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly told, with - scarcely any other conjunction than the simple copulative and: which is frequently the case in the histori-cal parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by crowding the principal words upon one another, give a sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced down through their consequences, or upwards to their causes; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them ; when the historian argues

2 either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties, there will be occasion for every species of connective, as much as in

philosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, · and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indig

pensably necessary."

CHAPTER X..

Of Interjections. INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker: as, “Oh! I have alienated my friend ; alas ! I fear for life :" "O virtue! bow amiable thou art !"

2

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litude or tendency to a character: as, “ Child, childish; thief, thievish.”

Some adjectives are formed from substantives or verbs, by adding the termination able; and those adjectives signify capacity : as, “ Answer, answerable; to change, changeable."

4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness: as, White, whiteness ; swift, swiftness :" sometimes by adding th ort, and making a small change in some of the letters: as, “ Long, length; high, height."

5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived : as, from base,” comes basely ;" from s slow, slowly; from "able, ably.”

There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult, and nearly impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of any language are very few; the derivatives form inuch the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.

Some substantives are derived from other substantives, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age.

Substantives ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities; as, “ Manhood, knighthood, false hood," &c.

Substantives ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition: as, "Lordship, stewardship, partnership,” &c. Some substantives in ship, are derived from adjectives : as,“ Hard, hardship,” &c.

Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit : as, “ Slavery, foolery, prudery,” &c. Sonne substantives of this sort come from adjectives; as, "Brave, bravery,"

Substantives ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote do

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