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stood; thus we say,
As appears, as follows;" for “As it appears, as it follows;" and “May be,” for “ It may be.”
The neuter pronoun it is sometimes employed to express;
1st, The subject of any discourse or inquiry : as, happened on a summer's day;" “ Who is it that calls on
20, The state or condition of any person or thing : as, “ How is it with you ?”
3d, The thing, whatever it be, that is the cause of any effect or event, or any person considered merely as a cause: as,
“ We heard her say it was not he;" “ The truth is, it was I that helped her.”
RULE VI. The relative is the nominative case to the verb, when no nominative comes between it and the verb; as, “ The master who taught us ;" “ The trees which are planted.”
When a nominative comes between the relative and the verb, the relative is governed by some word in its own member of the sentence : as, “ He who preserves me, to whom I owe my being, whose I am, and whom I serve, is eternal."
In the several members of the last sentence, the relative performs a different office. In the first member, it marks the agent; in the second, it submits to the government of the preposition; in the third, it represents the possessor; and in the fourth, the object of an action : and therefore it must be in the three different cases, correspondent to those offices.
When both the antecedent and relative become nominatives, each to different verbs, the relative is the nominative to the former, and the antecedent to the latter verb: as, “ True philosophy, which is the ornament of our nature,
consists more in the love of our duty, and the practice of virtue, than in great talents and extensive knowledge.”.
A few instances of erroneous construction, will illustrate both the branches of the sixth rule. The three following refer to the first part. “ How can we avoid being grateful to those whom, by repeated kind offices, have proved themselves our real friends ?” “ These are the men whom, you might suppose, were the authors of the work ;" * If you were here, you would find three or four, whom you would say passed their time agreeably:" jn all these places it should be who instead of whom. The two latter sentences contain a nominative between the relative and the verb; and, therefore, seem to contravene the rule : but the student will reflect, that it is not the nominative of the verb with which the relative is connected. The remaining examples refer to the second part of the rule.
Men of fine talents are not always the persons who we should esteem.” " The persons who you dispute with, are precisely of your opinion.” “ Our tutors are our benefactors, who we owe obedience to, and who we ought to love." In these sentences, whom should be used instead of who.
1. When the relative pronoun is of the interrogative kind, the noun or pronoun containing the answer, must be in the same case as that which contains the question : as, “ Whose books are these? They are John's." “ Who'gave them to him ? We.” “ Of whom did you buy them? Of a bookseller ; hiin who lives at the Bible and Crown." “ Whom did you see there ? Both him and the shopman." The learner will readily comprehend this rule, by supplying the words which are understood in the answers. Thus, to express the answers at large, we should say, “They are John's books." “ We gave them to him." them of him who lives, &c.” “ We saw both him and the shopman."-As the relative pronoun, when used interrogatively, refers to the subsequent word or phrase containing
“ We bought
the answer to the question, that word or phrase may properly be termed the subsequent to the interrogative.
RULE VII. When the relative is preceded by two nominatives of different persons, the relative and verb may agree in person with either, according to the sense; as, “I am the man who command you ;" or, “I am the man who commands you."
The form of the first of the two preceding sentences, expresses the meaning rather obscurely. It would be more perspicuous to say ;“ I, who command you, am the man.' Perhaps the difference of meæning, produced by referring the relative to different antecedents, will be more evident to the learner, in the following sentences. " I am the general who gives the orders to-day;" “I am the general; , who give the orders to-day;" that is, “ I, who give the orders to-day, am the general.”
When the relative and the verb have been determined to agree with either of the preceding nominatives, that agreement must be preserved throughout the sentence; as in the following instance : “ I am the Lord that maketh all things; that stretcheth forth the heavens alone." Isa. xliv. 24. Thus far is consistent: The Lord, in the third person, is the antecedent, and the verb agrees with the relative in the third person :
I am the Lord, which Lord, or he that maketh all things.” If I were made the antecedent, the relative and verb should agree with it in the first person: as, “ I am the Lord, that make all things, that stretch forth the heavens alone.” But should it follow ; “ That spreadeth abroad the earth by myself;" there would arise a confusion of persons, and a manifest solecism.
RULE VIII. Every adjective, and every adjective pronoun, belongs to a substantive, expressed or understood : as, “ He is a good, as well as a wise man;" “ Few are happy;" that is “ persons :" " This is a pleasant walk;"
" that is,
6 This walk is,” &c. Adjective pronouns must agree, in number, with their substantives : as, “ This book, these books; that sort, those sorts; another road, other roads"
1. ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS.
A few instances of the breach of this rule are here exhibited. • I have not travelled this twenty years ;' these twenty." “ I ain not recommending these kind of sufferîngs ;":
: « this kind." « Those set of books was a valuable present;" “ that set."
1. The word means in the singular number, and the phrases, “ By this means," “ By that ineans," are used by our best and most correct writers ; namely, Bacon, Tillotson, Atterbury, Addison, Steele, Pope, &c.f They are, indeed, in so general and approved use, that it would appear awkward, if not affected, to apply the old singular form, and say, By this mean ; by that mean ; it was by
t" By this means, he had them the more at vantage, being tired and harassed with a long march."
Bacon. “ By this means one great restraint from doing eril, would be taken away."“And this is an admirable mcans to improve men in virtue."-" By that means they have rendered their duty more difficult."
Tillotson. “ It renders us careless of approving ourselves to God, and by that means securing the continuance of his goodness."_" A good character, when established, should not be rested in as an end, but employed as a means of doing still further good.”
Atterbury By this means they are happy in each other."-" He by that means preserves bio superiority."
Addison " Your vanity by this means will want its food."
Steele “ By this means alone, their greatest obstacles will vanish."
Popa " Which custom has proved the most efectual neare to ruin the nobles.”
a mean;" although it is more agreeable to the general analogy of the language. “The word means (says Priestly) belongs to the class of words, which do not change their termination on account of number; for it is used alike in both numbers."
The word amends is used in this manner, in the following sentences : “ Though he did not succeed, he gained the approbation of his country; and with this amends he was content." “ Peace of mind is an honourable amends for the sacrifices of interest.” “ In return, he received the thanks of his employers, and the present of a large estate : these were ample amends for all his labours." 16 We have described the rewards of vice : the good man's amends are of a different nature."
It can scarcely be doubted, that this word amends (like the word means) had formerly its correspondent form in the singular number, as it is derived from the French amende, though now it is exclusively established in the plural form. If, therefore, it be alleged that mean should be applied in she singular, because it is derived from the French moyen, the same kind of argument may be advanced in favour of the singular amende ; and the general analogy of the language may also be pleaded in support of it.
Campbell, in his “ Philosophy of Rhetoric," has the
“ There is no means of escaping the persecution."-"Faith is not only a means of obeying, but a principal act of obedience.”
Dr. Young. “He looked on money as a necessary means of maintaining and increasing power."
Lord Lyttelton's Henry I?. *** John was too much inamidated not to embrace every means afforded for his safe. ty."
Goldsmith. “ Lest this means should fail.”—“By means of ship-money, the late king," &c." The only means of securing a durable peace.
Hume. “ By this means there was nothing left to the Parliament of Ireland,” &c.
Blackstone. * By this means so many slaves escaped out of the hands of their masters.”
Dr. Robertson. By this means they bear witness to each other."
Burke. " By this means the wrath of man was made to turn against itself."
Dr. Blair. * A magazine, which bas, by this means, contained, &c.""Birds, in general, procure their food by means of their beak."