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without a variation of the verb, as the infinitive inood, which has no terminations different from those of the indicative. The decision of this point may not, by some grammarians, be thought of much consequence. But the rules which ascertain the propriety of varying, or not varying, the terminations of the verb, will certainly be deemed important. These rules may be well observed, without a uniformity of sentiment respecting the nature and limits of the subjunctive mood. For further remarks on the subject, see pages 78 -80. 84–86. 102-104. 108–111f.
9. Some conjunctions have correspondent conjunctions belonging to them, either expressed or understood : as,
1st, Though,-yet, nevertheless : as, Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor... Though powerful, he was meek.'
2d, Whetheror: as, ' Whether he will go.or not, I cannot tell.'
3d, Either-or: as, 'I will either send it, or bring it myself.'
4th, Neither-nor: as, Neither he nor I am able to compass it'
5th, As—as : expressing a comparison of equality : as, • She is as amiable as her sister; and as much respected:
6th, Asso: expressing a comparison of equality : as, As the stars, so shall thy seed be.'
+ We have stated, for the student's information, the different opinions of grammarians, respecting the English Subjunctive Mood: First, that which supposes there is no such mood in our language; Secondly, that which extends it no farther than the variations of the verb extend: Thirdly, that which we have adopted, and explained at large, and which, in general, corresponds with the views of the most approved writers on English Grammar. We may add a Fourth opinion; which appears to possess, at least, much plausibility. This opinion admits the arrangement we have given, with one variation, namely, that of assigning to the first tense of the subjunctive, two forms: 1st, that which simply denotes contingency: as. “ If he desires it, I will perform the operation;" that is,.“ If he now desires it :" 2ndly, that which denotes both contingency and futurity : as, “ If he desire it, I will perform the ope. ration;" that is, “ If he should hereafter desire it." This last theory of the subjunctive mood, claims the merit of rendering the whole system of the moods consistent and regular ; of being more conformable than any other, to the definition of the subjunclive; and of not referring to the indicative mood forms of expression, which ill accord with its simplicity and nature. Perhaps this theory will bear a strict exaruiaation.
7th, As-s0 : expressing a comparison of quality : as,' As the one dieth, so dieth the other.' 'As he reads, they read.'
8th, So-as : with a verb expressing a comparison of quality : as, ' To see thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary.'
9th, So-as : with a negative and an adjective expressing a coinparison of quantity : as, “ Pompey was not so great
neral as Cæsar, nor so great a man.' 1.Jth, So--that : expressing a consequence : as, ' He was 80 fatigued, that he could scarcely move.'
The conjunctions or and nor may often be used, with nearly equal propriety. . ' The king, whose character was not sufficiently vigorous, nor decisive, assented to the measure.' In this sentence, or would perhaps have been better: but, in general, nor seems to repeat the negation in the foriner part of the sentence, and therefore gives more emphasis to the expression. . 10. Conjunctions are often improperly used, both singly and in pairs. The following are examples of this impropriety. "The relations are so uncertain, as that they require a great deal of examination :' it should be, that they require,' &c. "There was no man so sanguine, who did not apprehend some ill consequences:' it ought to be, 'So sanguine as not to apprehend,' &c.; or, 'no man, how sanguine soever, who did not,' &c. "To trust in him is no more but to acknowledge his power. This is no other but the gate of paradise.' In both these instances, but should be than. . We should sufficiently weigh the objects of our hope; whether they are such as we may reasonably expect from them what they propose,' &c. It ought to be,' that we may reasonably,' &c. · The duke had not behaved with that loyalty as he ought to have done ;" with which he ought.' In the order as they lie in his preface :' it should be, 'in order as they lie;' or, 'in the order in which they lie.' 'Such sharp replies that cost him his life ;' as cost him,' &c. If he were truly that scarecrow, as he is now commonly
painted;' such a scarecrow,' &c. 'I wish I could do that justice to his memory, to oblige the painters,' &c.; 'do such justice as to oblige,' &c.
There is a peculiar neatness in a sentence beginning with the conjunctive form of a verb. • Were there no difference, there would be no choice.'
A double conjunctive, in two correspondent clauses of a sentence, is sometimes made use of: as,'had he done this, he had escaped ;' Had the limitations on the prerogative been, in his time, quite fixed and certain, his integrity had made him regard as sacred, the boundaries of the constitution. The sentence in the common form would have read thus : 'If the limitations on the prerogative had been, &c. his integrity would have made him regard,' &e.
The particle as, when it is connected with the pronoun such, has the force of a relative pronoun : as, ' Let such as presume to advise others, look well to their own conduct; which is equivalent to, 'Let them who presume,' &c. But when used by itself, this particle is to be considered as a conjunction, or perhaps as an adverb. See the Key.
Our language wants a conjunction adapted to familiar style, equivalent to notwithstanding. The words for all that, seem to be too low. “The word was in the mouth of every one, but, for all that, the subject may still be a secret.'
In regard that is solemn and antiquated; because would do much better in the following sentence. " It cannot be otherwise, in regard that the French prosody differs from that of every other language.'
The word except is far preferable to other than. 'It admitted of no effectual cure other than amputation.' Except is also to be preferred to all but. They were happy all but the stranger.
In the two following phrases, the conjunction as is improperly omitted; "Which nobody presumes, or is so sanguine, to hope.' 'I must, however, be so just to own."
The conjunction that is often properly omitted, and understood; as,'I beg you would come to me;'. See thou de it not;' instead of that you would," that thou do. But in the following and many similar phrases, this conjunction were much better inserted : " Yet it is reason the memory of their virtues remain to posterity.' It should be, 'yet it is just that the memory,' &c.
RULE XX. When the qualities of different things are compared, the latter noun or pronoun is not governed by the conjunction than or as, but agrees with the verb, or is governed by the verb or the preposition, expressed or understood as, “Thou art wiser than 1;" that is, “than I am.
.” “They loved him more than me;" i. e. than they loved me.” “The sentiment is well expressed by Plato, but much better by Solomon than him;" that is," than by him*."
The propriety or impropriety of many phrases, in the preceding as well as in some other forms, may be discovered, by supplying the words that are not expressed; which will be evident from the following instances of erroneous construction. • He can read better than me.' 'He is as good as her'
Whether I be present or no.' • Who did this? Me. By supplying the words understood in each of these phrases, their impropriety and governing rule will appear : as, 'Better than I can read;' "As good as she is ;' Present or not present;' 'I did it.'
1. By not attending to this rule, many errors have been committed : a number of which is subjoined, as a further caution and direction to the learner. Thou art a much greater loser than me by his death.' She suffers hourly more than me.' "We contributed a third more than the Dutch, who were obliged to the same proportion more than * See the Tenth, or any subsequent, edition of the Key : Rule xx. The Note,
King Charles, and more than him, the duke and the popish faction, were at liberty to form new schemes.' The drift of all his sermons was, to prepare the Jews for the reception of a prophet mightier than him, and whose shoes he was not worthy to bear.' • It was not the work of so eminent an author, as him to whom it was first imputed.? • A stone is heavy, and the sand weighty ; but a fool's wrath is heavier than them both.' 'If the king give us leave, we may perform the office as well as them that do.'. In these passages it ought to be, 'I, me, he, they, respectively.'
When the relative who immediately follows than, it seems to form an exception to the 20th rule ; for in that connex ion, the relative must be in the objective case ; as, Alfred, than whom, a greater king never reigned,' &c.' Beelzebub, than whor, Satan excepted, none higher sat,' &c. It is remarkable that in such instances, if the personal pronoun were used, it would be in the nominative case; as, ' A greater king never reignéd than he, that is, 'than he was.'' Beelzebub, than he, &c.; that is, than he sat.' The phrase than whom, is, however, avoided by the best modern writers.
RULE XXI. To avoid disagreeable repetitions, and to express our ideas in few words, an ellipsis, or omission of some words, is frequently admitted. Instead of saying, 'He was a learned man, he was a wise man, and he was a good man;' we make use of the ellipsis, and say, ' He was a learned, wise, and good man.'
When the omission of words would obscure the senfence, weaken its force, or be attended with an impropriety, they must be expressed. In the sentence, are apt to love who love us,' the word them should be supplied. A beautiful field and trees,' is not proper language. It should be, ' Beautiful fields and trees ;' or,' A beautiful field and fine trees.'