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10llowing sentence, “I desire your departure.” The words

depart instantly,” may be proved to be, not the imperative mood with an adverb, but the indicative and infinitive, with a noun and preposition ; for they are equivalent to “ I desire you to depart in an instant.” The superlative degree in this sentence, “Of all acquirements virtue is the most valuable," may pass for the comparative, because it conveys the same sentiment as, Virtue is more valuable than every other acquirement."

We shall not pursue this subject any further, as the reader must be satisfied, that only the word desire, in the equivalent sentence, implies affirmation; and that one phrase may, in sepse, be equivalent to another, though its grammatical nature is essentially different. To verbs belong NUMBER, PERSON, MOOD, and TENSE.

SECTION 2. Of Number and Person. Verbs have two numbers, the Singular and the Plural: as, “I run, we run,” &c.

In each number there are three persons; as,


First Person.
Second Person.
Third Person.

I love.
Thou lovest.
He loves.

We love.
Ye or you love.
They love.

Thus the verb, in some parts of it, varies its endings, to express, or agree with, diferent persons of the same number: as, “ I love, thou lovest ; he loveth, or loves :" and also to express different numbers of the same person: as," thou lovest, ye love ; he loveth, they love.” In the plural number of the verb, there is no variation of ending to express the different persons; and the verb, in the three persons plural, is, the same as it is in the first person singular. Yet this scanty provision of terminations is sufficient for all the perposes of discourse, and no ambiguity arises from it: the


verb being always attended, either with the noun expressing the subject acting or acted upon, or with the pronoun representing it. For this reason, the plural termination in en, they loven, they weren, formerly in use, was laid aside as unnecessary, and has long been obsolete.

SECTION 3. Of Moods and Participles. Mood or Mode is a particular form of the verb, showing the manner in which the being, action, or passion, is represented.

The nature of a mood may be more intelligibly explained to the scholar, by observing, that it consists in the change which the verb undergoes, to signify various intentions of the mind, and various modifications and circumstances of action : which explanation, if compared with the following *account and uses of the different moods, will be found to agree with and illustrate them.

There are five moods of verbs, the INDICATIVE, the IMPERATIVE,


The indicative Mood simply indicates or declares a thing: as, “ He loves, he is loved :” or it asks a ques

6 Does he love?" Is be loved ?" The Imperative Mood is used for commanding, exhorting, entreating, or permitting: as, “Depart thou; mind ye; let us stay; go in peace.”

Though this mood derives its name from its intimation of command, it is used on occasions of a very opposite sature, even in the humblest supplications of an inferior being. to one who is infinitely his superior: as, “ Give us this day our daily lead; and forgive us our trespasses."

The potential Mood implies possibility or liberty, power, will, or obligation : as, “ It may rain; be may

he go or stay, I can ride; he would walk; they should

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The Subjunctive Mood represents a thing under a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c.; and is pre-, ceded by a conjunction, expresšed or understood, and, attended by another verb: as, “I will respect him, though he chide me;" “ Were he good, he would be happy;" that is, "if he were good.”-See pages 202, 203.

The Infinitiye Mood expresses a thing in a general and unlimited manner, without any distinction of number or person; as, “ to act, to speak, to be feared.”

The participle is a certain form of the verb, and derives its name from its participating, not only of the properties of a verb, but also of those of an adjective: as, “I am desirous of knowing him ;"! admired and applauded, he became vain;" Having finished his work, he submitted it," &c.

There are three participles, the Present or Active, the Perfect or Passive, and the Compound Perfect: as," loving, loved, having loved.”- See p. 102.

Agreeably to the gencral practice of grammarians, we have represented the present participle, as active; and the past, as passive: but they are not uniformly so: the present is sometimes passive; and the past is frequently active. Thus, “ The youth was consuming by a slow malady;" “ The Indian was burning by the cruelty of his enemies ;" appear to be instances of the present participle being used passively. "He has instructed me;" "I have gratefully repaid his kindness ;" are examples of the past participle being applied in an active sense. We may also observe, that the present participle is sometimes associated with the past and future tenses of the verb; and the past partisiple connected with the present and future tenses. The most unexceptionable distinction which grammarians make between the participles, is, that the one points to the continuation of the action, passion, or state, denoted by the

verb; and the other, to the completion of it. Thus, the present participle signifies imperfect action, or action begun and not ended : as, “ I am writing a letter.” The past participle signifies action perfected, or finished : as, "I have written a letter;" “ The letter is written."*

The participle is distinguished from the adjective, by the former's expressing the idea of time, and the latter's denoting only a quality. The phrases, " loving to give as well as to receive," " moving in haste," "heated with liquor,” contain participles giving the idea of time ; but the epithets contained in the expressions, “a loving child," "a moving spectacle," " a heated imagination,” mark simply the qualities referred to, without any regard to time; and may properly be called participial adjectives.

Participles not only convey the notion of time; but they also signify actions, and govern the cases of nouns and pronouns, in the same manner as verbs do; and therefore should be comprehended in the general name of verbs. That they are mere modes of the verb, is manifest, if our definition of a verb be admitted : for they signify being, doing, or suffering, with the designation of time superadded. But if the essence of the verb be made to consist in affirmation of assertion, not only the participle will be excluded from its place in the verb, but the infinitive itself also; which cer tain ancient grammarians of great authority held to be alone the genuine verb, simple and unconnected with persons and circumstances.

The following phrases, even when considered in them., selves, show that participles include the idea of time: “The letter being written, or having been written,

u Charles being writing, having prillen, or having been writing." But when arranged in an entire sentence, which they must be to make a complete sense, they show it still more evidently: as, “ Charles having nritten the letter, sealed and


When this participle is joined to the verb to have, it is called perfect; when it is joined to the verb to be, or upderstood with it, it is denominated passive

despatched it." -The participle does indeed associate with different tenses of the verb : as, “I am writing,” “ I was writing,” “I shall be writing :" but this forms no just objection to its denoting time. If the time of it is often relative time, this circumstance, far from disproving, supports our positiont. . See observations under Rule 13 of Syntax.

Participles sometimes perform the office of substantives, and are used as such; as in the following instances; “The beginning;" "a good understanding ;" excellent writing," « The chancellor's being attached to the king secured his crown:” “The general's having failed in this enterprise occasioned his disgrace;" “ John's having been woriting a long time had wearied him."

That the words in italics of the three latter examples, perform the office of substantives, and may be considered as such, will be evident, if we reflect, that the first of them has exactly the same meaning and construction as, chancellor's attachment to the king secured his crown;". and that the other examples will bear a similar construction. The words, being attached, govern the word chancellor's in the possessive case, in the one instance, as clearly as attachment governs it in that case, in the other : and it is only substantives, or words and phrases which operate as substantives, that goverh the genitive or possessive case.

The following sentence is not precisely the same as the above, either in sense or construction, though, except the genitive case, the words are the same; “ The chancellor, being attached to the king, secured his crown." In the former, the words, being attached, form the nominative case to the verb, and are stated as the cause of the effect; in the latter, they are not the nominative case, and make only a circumstance to chancellor, which is the proper nominative. It may not be improper to add another form of

66 The

+ From the very nature of time, an action may be present ren, it may have been . present formerly, or it may be present at some future period—yet who erer supposed, tbat the presect of the indicative denotes no time?

Encyclupoedia Britannies

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