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horting, commanding : as, “Let us know the truth" "Let me die the death of the righteous ;"? ." Let not thy heart be too much elated with success ;" “ thy inclination submit to thy duty.”

May and might express the possibility or liberty of doing a thing; can and could, the power: as, “ It may rain;" “I may write or read ;" “He might have improved more than he has ;" “ He can write much better than he could last


Must is sometimes called in for a helper, and denotes necessity : as, “We must speak the truth, whenever we do speak, and we must not prevaricate."

Will, in the first person singular and plural, intimates resolution and promising ; in the second and third person, only foretels : as, “ I will reward the good, and will punish the wicked ;" “ We will remember benefits, and be grateful;" “ Thou wilt, or he will, repent of that folly ;" “ You or they will have a pleasant walk."

Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretels; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threatens : as, “ I shall go abroad ;" “ We shall dine at home;" “ Thou shalt, or you shall, inherit the land :" " Ye shall do justice, and love mercy;" " They shall ac count for their misconduct.”. The following passage is not translated according to the distinct and proper meanings of the words shall and will : “Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life ; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever ;" it ought to be,'" Will follow me," and " I shall dwell.”—The foreigner who, as it is said, fell into the Thames, and cried out ;;" I will be drowned, no body shall help me;" made a sad misapplication of these auxiliaries.

These observations respecting the import of the verbs will and shall, must be understood of explicative sentences; for when the sentence is interrogative, just the reverse, for the inost part, takes place : thus, “ I shall go ; you will 99 go ;" express event only: but, “ will you go ?" imports intention ; and,“ shall I go ?” refers to the will of another. But, “ He shall go,” and “ shall he go ?" both imply will ; expressing or referring to a command.

When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, the meaning of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some alteration; as the learners will readily perceive by a few examples: * He shall proceed,” “ If he shall proceed;" “ You shall consent,

,” “If you shall consent.” These' auxiliaries are sometimes interchanged, in the indicative and subjunctive moods, to convey the same meaning of the auxiliary : as, “ He will not return,” “If he shall not return;": “He shall not return,

? 6 If he will not return." Would, primarily denotes inclination of will; and should, obligation: but they both vary their import, and are often used to express simple event.

SECTION 8. The Conjugation of regular Verbs.

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VERBS Active are called Regular, when they form their imperfect tense of the indicative mood, and their perfect participle, by adding to the verb ed, or d only when the verb ends in e: as, Present Imperfect.

Perf. Particip.
I favour. I favoured. Favoured.
I loved.

Loved. A Regular Active Verb is conjugated in the following manner.

Indicative Mood.

1. I lovet.

1. We love. 2. Thou lovest.

2. Ye or you love. 3. He, she, or it, loveth

3. They love." or loves.

In the present and imperfect tenses, we use a different form of the verb, when we mean to express energy and positiveness : as, “I do love ; thou dost love; he does love; I did love ; thou didst love; he did love."



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PLURAL 1. I had loved.

1. We had loved. 2. Thou hadst loved. 2. Ye or you had loved. 3. He had loved.

3. They had loved.

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Those tenses are called simple tonses, which are formed of the principal, without an auxiliary verb: as, “ I love, I loved.” The compound tenses are such as cannot be formed without an auxiliary verb: as, “ I have loved ; I had loved; I shall or will love ;

love; I may

be loved; I may have been loved ;" &c. These compounds Are, however, to be considered as only different forms of the same verb

I I inay

Imperative Mood.

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1. Let me love.

1. Let us love. ? 2. Love, or love thou, or do 2. Love, or love ye or you, thou love.

or do ye love. 3. Let him love.

3. Let them love.

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1. I may or can love. 1. We may or can love. 2. Thou maystor canst love. 2. Ye or you may or can love. 3. He may or can love. 3. They may or can love.

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1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should love.

or should love. 2, Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst love. would, or should love. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would, or should love.

or should love.

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1. I may or can have loved. 1. We mayor can have loved. 2. Thou inayst or canst have 2. Ye or you may or can have loved.

loved. 3. He may or can have lov- 3. They may or can have lov





PLURAL. 1 I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should have loved.

or should have loved. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might could,

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have lovloved.

ed. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They migħt, could, would,

or should have loved or should have loved



Subjunctive Mood.

PLURAL. 1. If I love.

1. If we love. 2. If thou love.

2. If ye or you love. 3. If he love.

3. If they love. The remaining tenses of this mood, are, in general, simi lar to the correspondent tenses of the indicative mood. See page 90, and page 103.

It may be of use to the scholar, to remark, in this place, that though only the conjunction if is affixed to the verb, any other conjunction proper for the subjunctive mood, may, with equal propriety, be occasionally annexed. The instance given is sufficient to explain the subject: mcre would be tedious, and tend to embarrass the learner.

Infinitive Mood.
PRESENT. To love.

To have loved..
Loving. PERFECT. Loved.

Having loved. The active verb may be conjugated differently, by adding its present or active participle to the auxiliary verb to be, through all its moods and tenses; as, instead of " I teach, thou teachest, he teaches,” &c.; we may say, “I am teaching, thou art teaching, he is teaching," &c.; and instead of “I taught,” &c. “I was teaching,” &c, and so on, through all the variations of the auxiliary. This mode of conjagation has, on particular occasions, a peculiar propriety ; and contributes to the harmony and precision of the language. These forms of expression are adapted to particular acts, not to general habits, or affections of the mind. They are very frequently applied to neuter verbs; as, " ! am musing; he is sleepingt."

+ As the participle, in this mode of conjugation, performs the office of 8 verb, through all the moods and tenses ; and as it implies the idea of time, and governs the objective case of nouns and pronouns, in the sange manner as verbs do; is-it not manifest, that it is a species or form of the verb, and that it cannot be properly considered as a distinct part of speech ?,




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