Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry
Wiley, Sep 26, 2003 - Science - 488 pages
Sample preparation: an analytical perspective; Somenath Mitra and Roman Brukh; The Measurement Process; Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis; Methods of Quantitation; Errors in Quantitative Analysis: Accuracy and Precision; Accuracy; Precision; Statistical Aspects of Sample Preparation; Method Performance and Method Validation; Sensitivity; Detection Limit; Range of Quantitation; Other Important Parameters; Method Validation; Preservation of Samples; Volatilization; Choice of Proper Containers; Absorption of Gases from the Atmosphere; Chemical Changes; Preservation of Unstable Solids; Postextraction Procedures; Concentration of Sample Extracts; Sample Cleanup; Quality Assurance and Qua1ity Control during Sample Preparation; Determination ofAccuracy and Precision; Statistical Control; Matrix Control; Contamination Control; Extraction and enrichment in sample preparation; principles of extraction and the extraction of semivolatile organics from liqums; PrincipIes of Extraction; Volatization; Hydrophobicity; Acid-Base Equilibria; Distribution of Hydrophobic Ionogenic Organic Compounds; Liquid- Liquid Extraction; Recovery; Methodology; Procedures; Recent Advances in Techniques; Liquid-Solid Extraction; Sorption; Solid-Phase Extraction; Sorbents in SPE; Sorbent Selection; Recovery; Methodology; Procedures; Recent Advances in SPE; Solid-Phase Microextraction; Sorbents; Sorbent Selection; Methodology; Recent Advances in Techniques; Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction; Sorbent and Analyte Recovery; Methodology; Recent Advances in Techniques; Method Comparison; Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from solid matrices; Extraction Mechanism; Preextraction Procedures; Postextraction Procedures; Soxhlet and Automated Soxhlet; Soxhlet Extraction; Automated Soxhlet Extraction; Comparison between Soxtec and Soxhlet; Ultrasonic Extraction; Selected Applications and Comparison with Soxhlet; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Theoretical considerations; lnstrumentation; Operational Procedures; Advantagesi Disadvantages and Applications of SFE; Accelerated Solvent Extraction; Theoretical Considerations; lnstrurnentation; Operational Procedures; Process Parameters; Advantages and Applications of ASE; Microwave-Assisted Extraction; Theoretical Considerations; lnstrurnentation; Procedures and Advantages/ Disadvantages; Process Parameters; Applications of MAE; Comparison of the Various Extraction Techniques; Extraction of volatll..e organic compounds from solms and liquids; Volatile Organics and Their Analysis; Static Headspace Extraction; Sample Preparation for Static Headspace Extraction; Optimizin8 Static Headspace Extraction Efficiency and Quantitation; Quantitative Techniques in Static Headspace Extraction; Dynamic Headspace Extraction or Purge and Trap; lnstrurnentation; Operational Procedures in Purge and Trap; lnterfacing Purge and Trap with GC; Solid-Phase Microextraction; SPME Method Development for Volatile Organics; Choosing an SPME Fiber Coating; Optimizing Extraction Conditions; Optimizing SPME-GC Injection; Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Large-Volume Injection; Large-Volurne GC Injection Techniques; Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Large- Volume Injection; Membrane Extraction; Membranes and Membrane Modules; Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry; Membrane Extraction with Gas Chromatography; Optimization of Membrane Extraction; Preparallon of samples for metals analysis; Wet Digestion Methods; Acid Digestion-Wet Ashing; Microwave Digestion; Comparison of Digestion Methods; Pressure Ashing; Wet Ashing for Soil Samples; Dry Ashing; Organic Extraction of Metals; Extraction with Supercritical Fluids; Ultrasonic Sample Preparation; Solid-Phase Extraction for Preconcentration; Sample Preparation for Water Samples; Precipitation Methods; Preparation of Sample Slurries for Direct AAS Analysis; Hydride Generation Methods; Colorimetric Methods; Metal Speciation; Types of Speciation; Speciation for Soils and Sediments; Sequential Schemes for MetaIs in Soil or Sediment; Speciation for MetaIs in Plant MateriaIs; Speciation ofSpecific Elements; Contamination during Metal Analysis; Safe Handling of Acids; sample preparation for nucleic acm analysis;sample prepara non in dna analysis; DNA and Its Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of DNA; Isolation of DNA; Isolation of DNA from Bacteria; Phenol Extraction and Precipitation of DNA; Removal of Contaminants from DNA; Isolation of Plasmid DNA; Plasmid DNA preparation; Purification of Plasmid DNA; Genomic DNA Isolation from Yeast; DNA from Mammalian Tissues; Blood; Tissues and Tissue Culture Cells; DNA from Plant Tissue; Isolation of Very High Molecular Weight DNA; DNA Amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction; Starting a PCR Reaction; Isolation of DNA from Small Real-World Samples for PCR;Assessment of Quality and Quantitation of DNA; Precautions for preparing DNA; Assessment of Concentration and Quality; Storage of DNA; sample preparation in rna analysis; RNA: Structure and Properties; Types and Location of Various RNAs; RNA Isolation: Basic Considerations; Methods of Extraction and Isolation of RNA; Phenol Extraction and RNA Recovery: Basic PrincipIes; Examples of RNA Isolation Using Phenol Extraction; Guanidinium Salt Method; Examples of RNA Isolation Using Guanidinium Salts; Isolation of RNA from Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Cellular Fractions; Removal of DNA Contamination from RNA; Fractionation of RNA Using Chromatography Methods; Fractionation of Small RNA by HPLC; mRNA Iso1ation by Affinity Chromatography; Isolation of RNA from Small Numbers of Cells; In Vitro Synthesis of RNA; Assessment of Quality and Quantitation of RNA; Storage of RNA; techniques for the extracnon, isolation, and purificanon of nucleic acms; Methods of Cell Lysis; Mechanical Methods of Cell Lysis; Nonmechanical Methods of Cell Lysis; Isolation of Nuc1eic Acids; Solvent Extraction and Precipitation; Membrane Filtration; Chromatographic Methods for the Purification of Nucleic Acids; Size-Exc1usion Chromatography; Anion-Exchange Chromatography; Solid-Phase Extraction; Affinity Purification; Automated High- Throughput DNA Purification Systems; Electrophoretic Separation of Nuc1eic Acids; Gel Electrophoresis for Nucleic Acids Purification; Techniques for the Isolation of DNA from Gels; Capillary Electrophoresis for Sequencing and Sizing; Microfabricated Devices for Nucleic Acids Analysis; sample preparation on microchips; sample preparallon in microscopy and spectroscopy; sample preparation for microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of solm; surfaces and films; Microscopy of Solids; Spectroscopic Techniques for Solids; Sample Preparation for Microscopic Evaluation; Sectioning and Polishing; Chemical and Thermal Etching; Sample Coating Techniques; Specimen Thinning for TEM Analysis; Ion Milling; Reactive Ion Techniques; Chemical Polishing and Electropolishing; Tripod Polishing; Ultramicrotomy; Special Techniques and Variations; Summary: Sample Preparation for Microscopy; Sample Preparation for Surface Spectroscopy; Ion Bombardment; Sample Heating; In Situ Abrasion and Scraping; In Situ Cleavage or Fracture Stage; Sample Preparation Treatment Options for In Situ Reaction Studies; Summary: Sample Preparation for Surrare Spectroscopy; surface enhancement by sample and substrate preparation techniques in raman and infrared spectroscopy; Raman Effect; fundamentaIs of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscppy; FundamentaIs of Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy; Sample Preparation for SERS; Electrochemical Techniques; Vapor Deposition and Chemical Preparation Techniques; Colloidal Sol Techniques; Nanoparticle Arrays and Gratings; Sample Preparation for SEIRA; PotentiaI Applications.
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