Sample Preparation Techniques in Analytical Chemistry

Front Cover
Somenath Mitra
Wiley, Sep 26, 2003 - Science - 488 pages
Sample preparation: an analytical perspective; Somenath Mitra and Roman Brukh; The Measurement Process; Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis; Methods of Quantitation; Errors in Quantitative Analysis: Accuracy and Precision; Accuracy; Precision; Statistical Aspects of Sample Preparation; Method Performance and Method Validation; Sensitivity; Detection Limit; Range of Quantitation; Other Important Parameters; Method Validation; Preservation of Samples; Volatilization; Choice of Proper Containers; Absorption of Gases from the Atmosphere; Chemical Changes; Preservation of Unstable Solids; Postextraction Procedures; Concentration of Sample Extracts; Sample Cleanup; Quality Assurance and Qua1ity Control during Sample Preparation; Determination ofAccuracy and Precision; Statistical Control; Matrix Control; Contamination Control; Extraction and enrichment in sample preparation; principles of extraction and the extraction of semivolatile organics from liqums; PrincipIes of Extraction; Volatization; Hydrophobicity; Acid-Base Equilibria; Distribution of Hydrophobic Ionogenic Organic Compounds; Liquid- Liquid Extraction; Recovery; Methodology; Procedures; Recent Advances in Techniques; Liquid-Solid Extraction; Sorption; Solid-Phase Extraction; Sorbents in SPE; Sorbent Selection; Recovery; Methodology; Procedures; Recent Advances in SPE; Solid-Phase Microextraction; Sorbents; Sorbent Selection; Methodology; Recent Advances in Techniques; Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction; Sorbent and Analyte Recovery; Methodology; Recent Advances in Techniques; Method Comparison; Extraction of semivolatile organic compounds from solid matrices; Extraction Mechanism; Preextraction Procedures; Postextraction Procedures; Soxhlet and Automated Soxhlet; Soxhlet Extraction; Automated Soxhlet Extraction; Comparison between Soxtec and Soxhlet; Ultrasonic Extraction; Selected Applications and Comparison with Soxhlet; Supercritical Fluid Extraction; Theoretical considerations; lnstrumentation; Operational Procedures; Advantagesi Disadvantages and Applications of SFE; Accelerated Solvent Extraction; Theoretical Considerations; lnstrurnentation; Operational Procedures; Process Parameters; Advantages and Applications of ASE; Microwave-Assisted Extraction; Theoretical Considerations; lnstrurnentation; Procedures and Advantages/ Disadvantages; Process Parameters; Applications of MAE; Comparison of the Various Extraction Techniques; Extraction of volatll..e organic compounds from solms and liquids; Volatile Organics and Their Analysis; Static Headspace Extraction; Sample Preparation for Static Headspace Extraction; Optimizin8 Static Headspace Extraction Efficiency and Quantitation; Quantitative Techniques in Static Headspace Extraction; Dynamic Headspace Extraction or Purge and Trap; lnstrurnentation; Operational Procedures in Purge and Trap; lnterfacing Purge and Trap with GC; Solid-Phase Microextraction; SPME Method Development for Volatile Organics; Choosing an SPME Fiber Coating; Optimizing Extraction Conditions; Optimizing SPME-GC Injection; Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Large-Volume Injection; Large-Volurne GC Injection Techniques; Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Large- Volume Injection; Membrane Extraction; Membranes and Membrane Modules; Membrane Introduction Mass Spectrometry; Membrane Extraction with Gas Chromatography; Optimization of Membrane Extraction; Preparallon of samples for metals analysis; Wet Digestion Methods; Acid Digestion-Wet Ashing; Microwave Digestion; Comparison of Digestion Methods; Pressure Ashing; Wet Ashing for Soil Samples; Dry Ashing; Organic Extraction of Metals; Extraction with Supercritical Fluids; Ultrasonic Sample Preparation; Solid-Phase Extraction for Preconcentration; Sample Preparation for Water Samples; Precipitation Methods; Preparation of Sample Slurries for Direct AAS Analysis; Hydride Generation Methods; Colorimetric Methods; Metal Speciation; Types of Speciation; Speciation for Soils and Sediments; Sequential Schemes for MetaIs in Soil or Sediment; Speciation for MetaIs in Plant MateriaIs; Speciation ofSpecific Elements; Contamination during Metal Analysis; Safe Handling of Acids; sample preparation for nucleic acm analysis;sample prepara non in dna analysis; DNA and Its Structure; Physical and Chemical Properties of DNA; Isolation of DNA; Isolation of DNA from Bacteria; Phenol Extraction and Precipitation of DNA; Removal of Contaminants from DNA; Isolation of Plasmid DNA; Plasmid DNA preparation; Purification of Plasmid DNA; Genomic DNA Isolation from Yeast; DNA from Mammalian Tissues; Blood; Tissues and Tissue Culture Cells; DNA from Plant Tissue; Isolation of Very High Molecular Weight DNA; DNA Amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction; Starting a PCR Reaction; Isolation of DNA from Small Real-World Samples for PCR;Assessment of Quality and Quantitation of DNA; Precautions for preparing DNA; Assessment of Concentration and Quality; Storage of DNA; sample preparation in rna analysis; RNA: Structure and Properties; Types and Location of Various RNAs; RNA Isolation: Basic Considerations; Methods of Extraction and Isolation of RNA; Phenol Extraction and RNA Recovery: Basic PrincipIes; Examples of RNA Isolation Using Phenol Extraction; Guanidinium Salt Method; Examples of RNA Isolation Using Guanidinium Salts; Isolation of RNA from Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Cellular Fractions; Removal of DNA Contamination from RNA; Fractionation of RNA Using Chromatography Methods; Fractionation of Small RNA by HPLC; mRNA Iso1ation by Affinity Chromatography; Isolation of RNA from Small Numbers of Cells; In Vitro Synthesis of RNA; Assessment of Quality and Quantitation of RNA; Storage of RNA; techniques for the extracnon, isolation, and purificanon of nucleic acms; Methods of Cell Lysis; Mechanical Methods of Cell Lysis; Nonmechanical Methods of Cell Lysis; Isolation of Nuc1eic Acids; Solvent Extraction and Precipitation; Membrane Filtration; Chromatographic Methods for the Purification of Nucleic Acids; Size-Exc1usion Chromatography; Anion-Exchange Chromatography; Solid-Phase Extraction; Affinity Purification; Automated High- Throughput DNA Purification Systems; Electrophoretic Separation of Nuc1eic Acids; Gel Electrophoresis for Nucleic Acids Purification; Techniques for the Isolation of DNA from Gels; Capillary Electrophoresis for Sequencing and Sizing; Microfabricated Devices for Nucleic Acids Analysis; sample preparation on microchips; sample preparallon in microscopy and spectroscopy; sample preparation for microscopic and spectroscopic characterization of solm; surfaces and films; Microscopy of Solids; Spectroscopic Techniques for Solids; Sample Preparation for Microscopic Evaluation; Sectioning and Polishing; Chemical and Thermal Etching; Sample Coating Techniques; Specimen Thinning for TEM Analysis; Ion Milling; Reactive Ion Techniques; Chemical Polishing and Electropolishing; Tripod Polishing; Ultramicrotomy; Special Techniques and Variations; Summary: Sample Preparation for Microscopy; Sample Preparation for Surface Spectroscopy; Ion Bombardment; Sample Heating; In Situ Abrasion and Scraping; In Situ Cleavage or Fracture Stage; Sample Preparation Treatment Options for In Situ Reaction Studies; Summary: Sample Preparation for Surrare Spectroscopy; surface enhancement by sample and substrate preparation techniques in raman and infrared spectroscopy; Raman Effect; fundamentaIs of Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy; Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscppy; FundamentaIs of Surface-Enhanced Infrared Spectroscopy; Sample Preparation for SERS; Electrochemical Techniques; Vapor Deposition and Chemical Preparation Techniques; Colloidal Sol Techniques; Nanoparticle Arrays and Gratings; Sample Preparation for SEIRA; PotentiaI Applications.

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About the author (2003)

SOMENATH MITRA. PHD, is Professor of Chemistry and Environmental Science at the New Jersey Institute of Technology. He is coauthor of the textbook Environmental Chemical Analysis. In addition, he has published extensively in peer-reviewed journals of chemistry and analytical sciences.

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