Engineering materials and their applications
This edition of the classic text/reference book has been updated and revised to provide balanced coverage of metals, ceramics, polymers and composites. The first five chapters assess the different structures of metals, ceramics and polymers and how stress and temperature affect them. Demonstrates how to optimize a material's structure by using equilibrium data (phase diagrams) and nonequilibrium conditions, especially precipitation hardening. Discusses the structures, characteristics and applications of the important materials in each field. Considers topics common to all materials—corrosion and oxidation, failure analysis, processing of electrical and magnetic materials, materials selection and specification. Contains special chapters on advanced and large volume engineering materials plus abundant examples and problems.
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16.5 Schematic drawing of stimulated emission and amplification of a light beam
in the ruby laser, (a) At equilibrium, (b) Excitation by xenon light flash (c) A few
spontaneously emitted photons start the stimulated emission chain reaction, ...
In other words, it takes a photon of higher energy to knock out an outer-shell
electron in sodium than in cesium because the outer electrons in cesium are
further from the nucleus and are more loosely held. EXAMPLE 16.2 The work
When a photon of light strikes an electron, the electron can be raised to an
unoccupied higher level, and the radiation is absorbed rather than transmitted.
We can transmit visible light in metals only in very special cases, such as in a
very thin ...
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The Problem of Materials Selection and Development
Metallic Structures The Unit Cell
Effects of Stress and Temperature on Simple Metal
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