Nanosystems: molecular machinery, manufacturing, and computation
Written by a leading researcher in the field and one of its founders, Nanosystems is the first technical introduction to molecular nanotechnology - an emerging field that has sparked increasing interest and controversy. This groundbreaking book describes fundamental physical principles, components and devices, then examines applications including computers of unprecedented power and manufacturing systems able to build such products molecule by molecule. Nanosystems presents a comprehensive overview of how molecular manufacturing will make products by using nanoscale (billionths of a meter) mechanical and robotic technologies to guide the placement of molecules and atoms. Working with these fundamental building blocks of matter will enable designers to approach the limits of the possible: to build the smallest devices, the fastest computers, the strongest materials, and the highest quality products. By manipulating common molecules at high frequency, molecular manufacturing will make these products quickly, inexpensively, and on a large scale. Molecular manufacturing is the key to implementing molecular nanotechnologies, building systems to complex atomic specifications. This landmark work first presents the basic principles of physics and chemistry required to understand molecular machines. Then, Dr. Drexler describes computational models of molecules as mechanical systems, the effects of statistical mechanics, quantum uncertainty, damage mechanisms, and energy dissipation, and the fundamentals of mechanosynthesis - the use of mechanical devices to guide molecular reactions. Nanosystems then applies the analytical tools and concepts developed in the first section to the design ofnanomechanical components, devices, and systems. It describes nanomechanical gears, bearings, motors, sensors, logic gates, submicron 1000 MIPS computers (consuming 10(superscript -8) times as much power as comparable computers today), and systems able to join simple molecules to build complex products. The last section discusses how chemical, biochemical, and proximal probe technologies can be used to build complex molecular objects and how this capability can be used to implement molecular manufacturing. Bringing together physics, chemistry, mechanical engineering, and computer science, Nanosystems provides an indispensable introduction to the emerging field of molecular nanotechnology.
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Classical Magnitudes and Scaling Laws
Potential Energy Surfaces
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analysis approximation assumed atoms barrier bond calculations carbon Chapter chemical chemistry classical complex components compression computational configuration configuration space constraints continuum models covalent density described devices diamond diamondoid diamondoid structures discussed displacement dynamics effects elastic electronic electrostatic energy dissipation engineering entropy equilibrium errors estimated example Figure force free energy frequency gears geometry hydrogen input interactions interface knob ligand logic rod magnitude manufacturing systems mass mechanochemical mechanosynthesis moieties molecular manufacturing molecular mechanics molecular nanotechnology molecules motion nanomechanical systems nanometer nanoscale nonbonded nonbonded interactions operations oscillator parameters phonon physical pi bond potential energy surface protein quantum mechanical range rates reactions reactive reagent moieties receptor rotation scale Section shear sigma bonds sliding solution-phase specific speed statistical mechanics steric stiffness substantial synthesis temperature theoretical applied science thermal excitation tion transition transition state theory transverse typical values variance vibrational volume yields