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reformer on other than fashion- would suspend the multitudinable lines; for he will seek to ous activities of the State while conserve to the poorer classes this or that sore is diagnosed. the virtues and the chances of So complete is his absorption virtue of which the bourgeoisie that the whole of the normal in a mistaken patronage would and beneficent activities of a rob them.

great Empire are as nothing A meagre imagination in to him in comparison with social questions makes the the ill-humours of a little Cookney treat all conditions of part. Because he wants to life which differ from his own give the steerage passengers as pathological states. But better food and quarters he is the faot of poverty is not in quite willing to disregard the itself pathological: it may be soundness of the vessel, to fling normal and wholesome and the chart overboard, and select socially beneficent. There is, & casual dook-loafer as oaptain. however, one aspect of it which It is true he calls the part he is & fit subject for pathology, is concerned with “the heart and here the Cockney falls into of the Empire”; but it is no another kind of error. The more the heart of the Empire sight of the slums of our cities than the steerage is the heart moves the honest fellow deeply. of the ship. It is the old story, He sees no alleviations, and in a lack of perspective. He is certain cases, it may be, there 80 engrossed with the disease are no alleviations. But in- of one organ that he has no stead of facing the problem regard for the sanity of the squarely he is apt to fall into whole. emotional abstractions. He Two centuries ago Lord loves to point the difference Bolingbroke defined political between West Ham and May- genius as “great coolness of fair, finding a satisfaction half judgment united to great sentimental, half literary in the warmth of imagination. If task. But he is rarely fruitful this be true the

Cockney temin remedies; and for drastio porament has none of it, for measures which go to the root its judgment is apt to be hectio of the mischief he shows all and its imagination as cold as his familiar aversion. He will & stone. The inhabitants of have nothing to do with state- that narrow world have lost aided emigration-he calls it touch with their origins, and "shelving the question or beoause the gates of the past "& confession of failure." He are bolted there is also no shrinks from the segregation of avenue looking into the future. wastrels because it does viol. Their sphere is self-contained ence to his special brand of and artificially complete; but, humanity. He is guilty, more- to use the jargon of scienco, over, of & worse blunder. He it is unrelated and inorganio. sees only the pathological side They feed greedily upon phrases of the community, and, on the and emotions, but the verities plea of desperate urgenoy, of life are too gross and solemn

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for their favour. They flee able work. In society it fosters them, and by the old self- good manners and pleasant deception of man persuade company.

In ethics, too, it themselves that they never has its specifio place. We need existed. A dapper urban oivil- not be dogmatists and call “la isation is all very well, if it petite morale” the enemy of is seen by its devotees in its “la grande,” for both have true proportions. It is only their realm. Even in politics when the canons of a suburb it may be useful as the correcare exalted into laws of the tive—the illogical correotive if universe that the danger be- you like-of such follies as the gins. Men whose fate it is Superman and the pseudoto live much alone or in wild Bismarckian. But the fact places, who in their daily round remains that outside its limits are brought face to face with it is an evil, that it perpetually primitive nature and elemental tends to transgress those limits, passions, who see often the and that such transgressions bare ribs of our social struc- cover the larger and more vital ture, may lose much in elegance part of human affairs. We are and the minor moralities, but too prone nowadays to forat least they have & sound give a blundering statesman perspective. They know what because he is a good fellow and qualities of mankind are marked & kind father, or because he is for survival, and they are as- full of sympathy with misforsured that he who makes light tune and profuse in expressing of facts is himself made light it. Such qualities may fit a of in grim earnest before the man for private life, but they end. They know that only havo no earthly connection out of conflict comes what is with public life. What is worth possessing, and that the needed above all things is a world is only the heritage of the more rational and masculine meek when the meek go armed standard of judgment, which against folly and wrong. Let shall demand in each sphere us be very fair to the Cockney the things that properly pertemperament. It is essentially tain to it. Then and only then second-rate, but in its place it shall we be rid of the folly of has genuine merits. In litera- the belletrist in politios, and ture, if carefully ciroumsoribed, the professional peacemaker in it is the parent of much agreo- the problems of armed defence.

FIELD-MARSHAL SIR NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN.

“For Empire and Greatnesse arranging them and of collectit importeth most, that a ing other information regard- . Nation doe professe Armes, as ing his career and that of his their principall Honour, Study brother Crawford. It thus and Docupation.” So says came about that Neville Bacon in an essay which is Chamberlain's biographer, Mr full of lessons for us in this George Forrest, who has just twentieth century. Just as an given to the world the story honourable war will call forth of the Field-Marshal's life, was and foster the noblest qualities able to base on exceptionally of a people, so in the case complete material his glowing of individuals the profession of pioture of one of “the most arms surpasses every other splendid officers and gallant pursuit in giving scope and gentlemen” who ever graced opportunity for all that is most the roll of the Indian Army. generous in human nature. From his

earliest years Examples may be found in all Chamberlain was remarkable ages, but no country has pro- for his fearlessness and his duced more brilliant instances craving for action and adof the ideal soldier than have venture. Years afterwards he the islands of Great Britain. wrote: “How often, as a youth, Among these, although others have I bewailed not having may have attained to wider been born in stirring times. celebrity, certainly none more He had Danish blood in his truly deserved the title of veins, and his biographer, with hero than did Neville Bowles much show of reason, finds in Chamberlain, the subject of this fact the souroe of some of this sketch.

those qualities so characteristio Readiness with sword and of the Viking race. From the pen do not often go together, time when as a boy of fourteen but fortunately in this respect he spent most of his probationSir Neville Chamberlain was ary year at Woolwich in fightan exception to the rule. His ing (with disastrous results to letters are remarkable for their his career at the Military graphic power as well as for Academy), down to his last the simplicity which discloses campaign when, as the General his charaoter and qualities. commanding on the Ambela With even more rare good Pass, he was severely wounded fortune they fell into the hands in personally lea:ling his troops of one who preserved them to the recapture of the Crag with loving care and for years Picquet, he was never so much devoted herself to the task of in his element as when in the

| Life of Field - Marshal Sir Neville Chamberlain, G.C.B., G.C.S.I. By G. W. Forrest, C.I.E. Edinburgh and London: W. Blackwood & Sons. VOL CLXXXVI. - NO. MCXXV.

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thick of a combat and at the the long march to the Northpoint of the greatest danger. West. Just four years elapsed “You can fancy,” exclaims this before he once more set foot in born fighter, “how annoying it British India, and he returned must be to have an enemy in a man, sobered by the trials front of you and not to attack and toils, the responsibilities him ;” and again, when telling and dangers of service in the

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street fighting in field, his frame scarred and to which, as subaltern of

of some extent crippled for life by cavalry, he had little call to wounds, his courage tried and participate, he writes: “I was proved in a score of fights in sent with orders to the in- which he had earned such a fantry, ... and once among reputation for gallantry that the fun I could not tear myself Sir Charles Napier, himself away."

the most dauntless of veterans, As has been hinted, his called him “Coeur de Lion,' career at Woolwich was brief and James Outram, who also and inglorious. Like many knew not fear, wrote of him

, another whose character was s the most noble and the to be formed and strengthened bravest soldier who ever trod in the hard school of active in Afghanistan.” It is hard to service, his boyish spirit was guess what a young man of impatient of control and re- such high spirit, and so thirstbelled against academic disc ing for excitement and action cipline. He left Woolwich in as Neville Chamberlain, might disgrace, and there was have become if condemned to danger of his future being the inactivity and drudgery of wrecked for want of a congenial life in an Indian cantonment; field for his energies, when, but a perusal of his letters is fortunately for him, he was sufficient to disclose the regiven a cadetship in the service markable development of his of the East India Company, character between his nineand in February 1837, when a teenth year, when he started

, little more than seventeen, he for Afghanistan, and his twentyset sail for Calcutta. He third year, when he returned arrived in India within a few from that country; and it is months of the opening of the not unfair to ascribe to the Afghan campaign, which was experiences of those years, and destined to be fraught with so to the training which he thus much disaster to the British obtained, many of the qualities arms, and he was fortunate in which made him thenceforward being appointed to a regiment conspicuous as an accomplished which included in the soldier and leader of men, expeditionary force. On the It was at the storming of 10th of December 1838 Neville Ghuzneo in July 1839 that Chamberlain, with his regi- Neville Chamberlain first disment, the 16th Bengal Infantry, tinguished himself by an act started from Ferozepore a light- of signal bravery in rescuing hearted, high-spirited boy, on under a hot fire a wounded

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brother officer. After this rising at Kabul and the murder more than a year passed al- of Sir Alexander Burnes. The most without incident, Cham- 16th Native Infantry was imberlain (as well as many others mediately recalled to Kandahar, who should have been able to and in all the fighting of the form a more accurate judg- next nine months, during which ment) fully persuaded that Nott held his own at the westhostilities were at an

end. ern capital, Neville Chamberlain But when he was chafing at was prominent. He was apthe inaction the sudden revolt pointed to the 1st Cavalry of of the Ghilzais showed how Shah Shuja's Contingent, more false was the security in which commonly known as Christie's the British officials had trusted, Horse, to which his brother and Chamberlain's spirits were Crawford had already been atraised by "a very brisk affair” tached, and he quickly showed with the enemy

his peculiar aptitude for the

work of a cavalry leader. In “No favour or affection on either

August, 1842, Nott's force side-every man for himself and God marched for Kabul, and after for us all. I hope (he adds] you will not think that I am of a bloody dis

a series of minor engagements, position from what I have said, but in which the tribesmen sought you must remember that it is a

to stop his advance, he reached soldier's profession to kill his enemies that place on September 17, two in battle, and had I not done my utmost I should have failed in my

days after the arrival by way of daty to my masters, the Queen, and the Khyber of the "avenging John Company."

army" under Pollock. A month

later, the British prisoners, Thereafter followed in rapid survivors from Elphinstone's succession the outbreak at ill-fated foroe, having been set Kabul, the disasters to the

the at liberty, and the great bazar British force there, the murder of Kabul having been destroyed of the Envoy, the retreat of as a mark of British vengeance, Elphinstone's brigade and its the withdrawal to India was complete annihilation in the begun. Even now the wild terrible passes of Khurd-Kabul, tribes of Afghanistan, though Haft Kotal, and Jagdallak. worsted, were by no means But in these events Chamber- subdued. Day after day the lain, fortunately for him, had rear-guard was attacked, and no share. His regiment formed Nott's gallant division, which part of the garrison of Ghazni held that post of honour, day throughout 1840. In the early by day paid its toll of killed summer of 1841 it was with- and wounded. At length, on drawn to Kandahar, and it November 7, 1842, four years had actually started from that from the time when the Bengal place on its return march to division had set forth from wards India when, on Novem- Ferozepore, the last of the ber 8, 1841, news reached British troops issued from the General Nott, commanding in Khyber. Thus ended our first western Afghanistan, of the ill-advised embroilment with

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