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steps which lead to it that he less of one whose thoughts are smelleth as much of pitch and so entirely and unaffectedly retar as those that were swaddled signed to whatever they shall in sail - cloth, his having an determine in this or anything escutcheon will be so far from else relating to the public.” doing him harm that it will A touching, but quite unwarset him upon the advantage- ranted, faith in Parliamentary ground. It will draw a real institutions ! My Lord Halifax, respect to his quality when one would almost think, winds so supported, and give him up his essay with a laugh bean

influence and authority hind his sleeve. He seems to infinitely superior to that mean that it is not worth his which the mere seaman while going into details, as ever pretend to.”

Parliament will not pay him In other words, the gentle- any attention, and in any case man, thoroughly trained in his is certain to make a mess of profession, is the best officer, the whole thing. but he must have the training. The


is that of "To expect that Quality alone thoughtful man in advance of should waft men up into places his times.

The careful preand employments is as un paration of young officers did reasonable as to think that a not really begin till he had ship because it is carved and been many years in the grave, gilded should be fit to go to and many tides rolled up and sea without sails or tackling. down England's "moat” before But when a gentleman maketh men realised that experience no other use of his Quality than backed by early training was to incite him the more to his better than experience alone. duty, it will give such a true Training helps an officer to and settled superiority as must profit to the utmost by his destroy all competition from experience. those that are below him." The “men of Wapping” no

He then says that “it is time longer hold Commissions, and now to go to the probationary it is just possible that we have qualifications of an officer at gone too far in the direction sea - but does not do 80. of excluding all but the Instead, he changes his mind, Quality. There are many naval and tells us that, although he officers who think that it was has some ideas on the subject, a grave mistake to close the yet he does not want to seem Keyham College and abolish out of his slender stock of the old order of Engineer reason to dictate to the wisdom Officer - in his way a “man of the nation. “And whenever of Wapping,” though he was the Parliament shall think fit swaddled in “ waste” rather to take this matter into their than sail-cloth, and smelt not consideration, I am sure they of pitch but of warm oil. It will not want for their direc- is a disputable point, moreover, tion the auxiliary reasons of whether a larger number of any man without doors, much commissions should not be




given to warrant officers. sole answer now, as in 1694, The number so given at pres- is, “Look to your moat.” ent is almost negligible, and Lord Halifax held no highly Warrant Officers are only pro- developed theories about the moted to fill a few billets in use of Sea Power. He is even which they do not come into something of a Little Engcontact with the officer of lander. “Our situation hath Quality. That a "ranker” in made greatness abroad by land the Army may win a Com- conquests unnatural to us."

. mission is undoubtedly on the The idea of a Colonial empire whole an excellent thing for is unknown to him, and we that service; that the prac- may gather that an tical impossibility of ever possession was not regarded rising above warrant rank is by him as a source of strength. something of a damper on But he is absolutely persuaded the praiseworthy ambitions, that England must be deand therefore detrimental to fended by sea, and that the character of the lower efficient fleet is the Cornerdeck, can hardly be denied. stone of the realm. If this "AW. 0. in the Ward-room !”

a lesson to be laid to exclaims the officer; we are heart by a statesman of his all at much too close quarters time, how much more ought at sea for that sort of thing.” those who are now responsible Well, the Engineer Officer very for our national safety to soon gets—or got, as he is be- consider the war readiness of coming a thing of the past, the fleet

matter of his awkward corners rubbed primary and essential importoff; and if a man has had the ance. Then there ability to rise from “boy” to nation in arms over against “W. 0.,” in ninety-nine cases us; Holland was exhausted, out of a hundred he will have and France, though hostile, the nous to study and assimil. had no great reputation for ate the manners and customs efficiency at sea. Then; a foul of his new messmates. But wind would upset any calthis is a digression perhaps culation; now, ships run like hardly warranted by Lord trains. If insult and invasion

were possibilities then, they It is indeed true that "it may certainly be said to be may be said now to England, probabilities ‘now, if we ever Martha, Martha, thou art busy allow our Navy to be in such about many things” (old-age a position that it cannot utterpensions and games of foot- ly prevent a hostile armada ball!); and to the question from taking possession of our “What shall we do to be moat. saved in this world ?” the



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INTREPID mortals who ven- ways and manners of its intured upon a journey to Ireland habitants; and to rectify the in the eighteenth century re- misconceptions caused by garded themselves as men of would-be tour.writers, whose heroic mould, bent upon a very longest journey he verily behazardous enterprise : of this lieved to have been from their number was a certain individ- own dwellings to the nearest ual named Bush, who visited chophouse, he set out from Ireland in 1764, and gave his Chester by the turnpike road experiences to the world in which had not long before been a volume entitled 'Hibernia constructed to Holyhead. The Curiosa. He was impelled to stage-coach accomplished the this great enterprise, so he distance very comfortably, so he tells us in his preface, by the tells us, in two days, and after misrepresentations contained in “jumbling” up and down the certain books which had not Welsh mountains he reached long before appeared. “The Holyhead, that ne plus ultra of greater part of these,” he ex- terra firma. There he began claims indignantly, “appear to to feel some of his courage and have been wrote implicitly from his zest for the enterprise he tradition or the hearsay of had undertaken oozing away. other people. Every gentle. He confesses that it was with

. man who has been through the apprehension, not unmix't with country knows that what they fear, that he surveyed the palm off upon us for natural yawning "gulph” before him history has no existence but in and the floating carriage which their own or the imagination was to


him across it, of others, and even of such and reflected that there would subjects as have some existence be but a few inches between in nature are as much like the his cabin and a bed of salt originals indeed

six- water. To reassure himself penny picture of KING-GEORGE somewhat he sought out the & QUEEN-SHARLOT stuck up captain, and that jolly mariner with a cat's head in a pot- recommended a bottle of claret tage - pot against the walls as the best specific, if not of a cottage in Lancashire" against the perils of the sea, resembles their most august at least for putting the terrors Majesties, was no doubt what of it out of his mind. our author meant to


if his With or without the claret anger had not got the better Bush got safely to the other of his literary style. By nat- side, though only after beating ural history the worthy Bush in the teeth of the wind for did not mean any description forty hours. His first impresof the flora and fauna of the sions of the Irish metropolis sister isle, but rather of the were not very favourable, as it


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did not contain a single inn, there was but too much, were

he assures us, where an considered good enough for Englishman with any sense of horses. Only once during his decency would have been satis- journeying in Ireland did Bush fied with his quarters, and suoceed in obtaining a clean, there were not more than two dry bed for his horse, and that or three in the whole town into was when his host happened which an Englishman would also to be a farmer. Bush arhave set foot at all. In his rived at the auspicious moment first hostelry, situated in Essex when his men were busy threshStreet, Bush had to pay a ing, and he insisted on seizing shilling a night for a bed two upon as much of the straw as feet wide, in a room not much afforded his horse a good bed for more than double that width. that one night at anyrate. Through the good offices of a Unhappily the two characcoffee - house acquaintance he teristics which impressed our shortly found a clean and neat traveller most amongst the room for himself elsewhere, but upper classes in Ireland were he had to pay half a guinea & their predilection for duelling week for it, which he considered and for excessive drinking. It excessive.

amazed him that race In

the country districts kindly and so hospitable should through which Bush journeyed yet be ready on the smallest the conditions were somewhat provocation, often for an offence better. The inns were clean given by sheer inadvertence, to and reasonably comfortable, run each other through the and the roads too were fairly body, or to perforate each good, though not equal to other's skulls with a brace of those in England. He added, pistol-balls. Like most visitors however, that if his horse had to Ireland Bush met with un. been gifted with the powers of bounded hospitality, his only Balaam's ass he would cer- difficulty being to avoid swaltainly have lifted up his voice lowing five times more liquor in protest at the treatment he than he had a mind for. The met with. The poverty of the wine consumed was almost enpeople was so great that every tirely claret, of which, in the handful of good hay and straw year of Bush's visit, 8000 tuns which was grown was expended were imported into Dublin not only upon their own bed- alone. It was cheap, for the ding and the thatch of their best claret procurable in Dublin dwellings, but also in making cost but half-a-crown a bottle, their horse-furniture, the whole whilst the price of that ordinof which, saddles, bridles, stir- arily drunk was only two rups and all, was composed of shillings. Even & middling sugauns-i.e., straw ropes. The drinker, our author tells us, refuse at the bottom of the could carry off his four bottles stacks and the spoilt and rot- without being in the least disted hay, of which, owing to ordered thereby, and in Ireland bad methods of harvesting, a man was looked upon as a

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mere ninoompoop with his stand for them being at the bottle if he could not take off head of the table before the his gallon coolly. It was in- master of the house. Everydeed impossible, so it seemed to was therefore obliged to him, to make an Irishman, who fill his glass at once and pass was anything of a drinker, drunk the bottle on, unless he desired

, with claret. At the end of five to upset its contents over the or six bottles he might perhaps table. Others adopted the be a little flashy, but you might simpler but quite as efficacious drink him to eternity, and he plan of knocking the stems off would never be anything more. the wine-glasses, so that they Shortly after Bush's arrival in would not stand, but had to be Dublin, one very hospitable emptied as fast as they were individual, to whom he had filled. Nay, hospitality went just been introduced, said geni- to such lengths that a man ally to him: “Well, sir, as who accepted an invitation to

, you come over quite a dine was very likely to have stranger to the country, it be- his boots and his horse locked hoves us to make it as agree- up, and to be detained willywe can.

There is a nilly a guest for two or three company of us to meet at the days. Black Rock on a jolly party One young fellow about this on Sunday next, and by time, being on his way to colthere is to be five or six dozen lege in Dublin, was invited to of claret to be emptied. Will spend a few days en route at you give us the

honour of your the house of an old friend of

The number of his father's. The night of his the assemblage by whom this arrival there was as usual a exploit was to be accomplished drinking - party, and he was was not mentioned, but Bush plied with bumpers till he sank declined the pressing invita- senseless under the table. Detion.

termined to escape this fate These ultra-convivial habits upon the second night of his are attested and deplored by stay, he waited till the commany other writers of the time. pany had well started upon " “Make your head while you their potations, and then enare young,” was advice fre- deavoured to steal unperceive

, quently given by elders to their out of the window. He was juniors. It was said that no detected, however.

detected, however. The cry of man who drank over died of “Stole away!” was immedidrink, but that many died ately raised, and with loud learning to drink. Many were and vigorous view-halloos the the devices adopted by the whole company gave chase. ingenious to circumvent the In the condition they were in endeavours of those who would it did not give him much fain remain sober. Some hosts trouble to evade the pursuit, had their decanters made round and he found shelter for the below like a soda-water bottle night in a ruined chapel within of the present day, the only the demonne. In the early


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