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the remark of Ricardo that individual is bound by somerent is paid for the use of the thing not unlike the caste original powers of the soil. system to that of personal freeOn this fact Mr Garnier, in dom. Occupancy of land under his valuable and exhaustive the long-lease system carried work, History of the English with it the economic emanci. Landed Interest,' has some pation of the worker.
The pointed remarks
right of the landowner to
develop his estate to the utter“What if it could now be found most would have been a barren that rents entirely represented the income, such as it is, derived from right so long as he could not capital sunk in the soil ? Most get the best class of tenants. capitalists dislike to publish abroad These he could not get so long their income and expenditure. Most as the feudal system held sway, land proprietors have not preserved sufficient data for such purpose. But
more particularly in the Highthe present Earl of Leicester, with ex- lands where the old local natives emplary public spirit, bas shown that were bound to the soil. In the his income now amounts to barely 2 semi-feudal régime the people per cent on a capital of £1,095,000 literally groaned under the expended by himself and his predecessors on the Holtham estate." oppression of the leaseholders,
or “tacksmen” as they were This is by no means an iso- called, who let the land to lated case.
In The Unseen tenants who were in reality Foundations of Society,' the only sub-tenants. These subauthor, the late Duke of Argyll, tenants were under no legal instances a great estate in Eng- protection. It was clear that land on which the outlay on however eager & landowner improvements had for twenty- was to improve his estate, no one years previous been at the progress was possible until the rate of £35,000 a-year, whilst harsh and arbitrary power of outlay on churches and schools the "taokemen was broken has a mounted in the last forty and the sub-tenants given years to nearly £2,000,000. something like security on the The Duke himself mentions land. This carried with it a one of his own properties upon further reform of great conwhich he spent £240,000 on sequence. It implied the right purely agricultural improve- of the landowner to deal direct ments—that is, on reclamation with the sub-tenant, and to of the soil, on drainage, and on select the most competent men buildings.
on quite other principles than Not only were the land- those of clanship. The “tacksowners pioneers in agricultural men” not only opposed the reform, they were also workers reform but fomented opposition in the cause of social progress. among the people; and we Sir Henry Maine has defined have only to study the career progress as the passage of of Forbes of Culloden to see society from the régime of how zealously he had to fight status to that of contract, against the conservative habits that is, from the stage when the and hereditary prejudices of
the very people he was seeking the old stagnant clan system. to help. It became a necessity, Here, then, we see that the if the new system was to pre- rights of property insisted upon vail, that farming tenants if by the landowners could not be they were to make the best of exercised without the acknowtheir lands should bring their ledgment of the right of own labourers with them. Here tenants to compete for land, was a severe blow struok at and the right to security in the old clan idea, under which possession of it so long as the there was no play for indi- conditions were fulfilled. In vidualism. Under the new all this we have the
of system energy was recognised civilisation as understood by and rewarded, and thus under Bentham, and in harmony the guidance of land-improving with his contention that Securproprietors the individual right ity is the fundamental prin. to labour under proper legal ciple of a well-ordered State. agreements began to be recog- In view of the foregoing the nised. Evidence that Scotland question may well be asked, was gradually passing out of How comes it that the popular the stage of Militarism into mind and the leaders of a great that of Industrialism was political party have got hold of seen by the action of the the delusion that landowners Scottish Parliament even at an as a class have systematically early date calling upon land- used their power to enrich owners to exercise their powers themselves at the expense of in the direction of letting their the community ? That this is lands to peaceable and loyal the Radical view is plain from people, that is, to men who the determination shown in the had no sympathy with the Budget to execute vengeance plundering habits of the clans. upon them in the shape of The substitution of legal secu- crushing taxation. The blame rity for feudal custom gave to for this widespread delusion the tenant increased status as mainly lies at the door of the & man, independently of all Ricardian School of Political clan distinctions, and in this Economy, in which the erronway the landownerg
eous doctrine of the unearned workers in the cause of indi- increment originated. Once vidual emancipation and social begin with Ricardo by differpeace. It is perfectly obvious entiating land from all other
. that the step from Feudalism kinds of property, onoe treat to Industrialism would never landowners as the possessors of have been taken in Scotland if a special kind of privilege, and the landowners had not been when you come to taxation owners in the absolute sense of you will naturally lay upon the term-had not, in other them special burdens. words, possessed the fullest Ricardo's definition of rent is right to lease the land to the to be found the germ of the best available men, and to sub- unearned increment and of all stitute legal agreements for recent socialistic land taxation.
“Rent,” says Ricardo, “is that profits and tenant's profits. J. portion of the produce of the S. Mill, who set himself to earth which is paid for the use defend the doctrine of Ricardo, of the original and indestruct- all unconsciously gives the case ible powers of the soil.” Such away at the conclusion of his a definition of rent could only chapter on Rent, in his 'Prin. be made by academic econom- ciples of Political Economy, ' ists with no knowledge of agri- where he sayscultural life. In the case of Scotland there was certainly rent are more frequent in the trans
“Cases of extra profit analogous to in early times abundance of actions of industry than is sometimes land with its original and in- supposed. Take the case, for exdestructible powers, but as ample, of a patent or exclusive privi. a rent-producing machine it lege for the use of a process by which was practically valueless. We value of the product continues to be
cost of production is lessened. If the have seen how the land ac- regulated by what it costs to those quired value by the intelligent who are obliged to persist in the old application of capital, and process, the patentee will make an with the increased productive- extra profit equal to the advantage
which his process possesses ness given to the land came theirs. This extra profit is essennaturally increased rentals. tially similar to rent, and sometimes But in all this there is nothing even assumes the form of it -- the to differentiate property in patentee allowing to other producers land from other kinds of prop- ation of an annual payment."
the use of his privilege in considererty. True, we
are in the habit of calling the return of That is to say, we call the the landlord rent, but it differs money received by the patentee only in name from the manu- the profits of his inventive facturer's profits. Strictly genius, and we call the money speaking, land is simply a received by a landowner-the productive instrument which profits upon his increased exthe owner hires out to the penditure upon his land-rent; tenant, who after paying for but, according to Mill, although its use finds himself with a the names are different the two surplus which he calls profit. things are essentially the same. Strictly speaking, too, this But Mill goes further. He means that rent, so far from says: “The extra gains which being the amount paid to the any producer or dealer obtains owner for the use of the orig. through superior talents for inal and indestructible powers business, or superior business of the soil, is really profit upon arrangements, are very much capital expenditure; indeed, as of a similar kind.” All adthe detailed statement of the vantages, in fact, says Mill, Duke of Argyll shows, the which one competitor has over expenditure is not nearly cov- another, whether natural or ered by the rental. All con- acquired, whether personal or fusion would be avoided by the result of social arrangeabolishing the misleading term ments, assimilate the possessor rent, and speaking of landlord's of the advantage to a receiver
of rent. The conclusion to have no existence, a like toll which Mill comes is, that should be levied on a lawyer's “any difference in favour of fees on the ground that without oertain producers, or in favour a community addicted to litiof production in certain cir- gation he would have no wealth oumstances, being the source at all. To put the matter in a of a gain which, though not nutshell, the fees of the lawyer called rent unless paid period and the profits of the manufacically by one person to an- turer, or newspaper proprietor, other, is governed by laws contain as large an element of entirely the same with it.” unearned increment as the rent If, then, according to Mill, of the landowner. For that rent is just profit under an- matter, unearned increment other name, what becomes of enters largely into the wages Ricardo's contention that rent of the working-classes, whose is the price paid for a unique inoreased rate of remuneration monopoly, and the deduction is due to the increased demands from it that, in the name of made upon them by the comunearned increment, the in- munity. To be logical, Mr
of landowners by & Asquith should ordain that process of taxation should be when manufacturers' profits, confiscated ? Mill's definition lawyers' fees, and workingof rent completely disposes of men's wages rise above a cerMr Asquith's contention in a tain point, toll should be levied recent speech at a Budget dem- on the increase, on the plea onstration, that in the name that as the various parties' of unearned increment the abilities remain the same the State is entitled to levy a toll increased value must neceson the part of the value of the sarily be the creation of the land which the community have community. In this matter created. But if, as Mill admits, the Socialists are more logical rent is simply another name for than their Liberal colleagues. profit, why does Mr Asquith They see no reason why the exclusively associate unearned capitalist's profits should not increment with land ? The be placed in the same category prosperity of every form of with the landowner's rents, and industry depends as much as thus pushing the Ricardian land upon the presence of a theory to its logical conclusion, prosperous community, with- they demand the nationalisaout which there can be neither tion of Capital as well as Land. rents nor profits. If toll is to That way anarchy lies. In the be levied on a part of a land- words of Bentham, “Society owner's rent on the plea that would return to the savage without the community it could state whence it emerged.
VOL. CLXXXVI.-NO. MCXXVII,
THE LOVERS' FLIGHT.
COME, the dusk is lit with flowers !
Quietly take this guiding hand : Little breath to waste is ours
On the road to lovers' land. Time is in his dungeon-keep!
Ah, not thither, lest he hear, Starting from his old gray sleep,
Rosy feet upon the stair.
Ah, not thither, lest he heed
Ere we reach the rusty door! Nay, the stairways only lead
Back to his dark world once more : There's a merrier way we know
Leading to a lovelier nightSee, your casement all a-glow
Diamonding the wonder-light.
Fling the flowery lattice wide,
Let the silken ladder down, Swiftly to the garden glide
Glimmering in your long white gown, Rosy from your pillow, sweet,
Come, unsandalled and divine; Let the blossoms stain your feet
And the stars behold them shine.
Swift, our pawing palfreys wait,
And the page-Dan Cupid-frets, Holding at the garden gate
Reins that chime like castanets, Bits a-foam with fairy flakes
Flung from seas where Venus rose : Come, for Father Time awakes
And the star of morning glows.