Principles of Radar and Sonar Signal Processing

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Artech House
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Contents

Radar and Sonar
1
12 Introduction
2
13 The Active Radar or Sonar Signal
4
14 Physical Interpretation
8
15 Passive Listening
10
Optimum Reception in White Noise
13
22 Principle
17
221 Estimation of a Parameter
18
552 Application to Jammer Cancellation
163
553 Adaptive Digital Beamforming with NoiseOnly Reference
169
554 Processing Without NoiseOnly Reference
170
555 Radar AngleError Measurement in the Presence of External Interference
172
556 Capons Adaptive Processing by Constrained Minimization
174
SpaceTime Processing
177
558 Equivalence Between Adaptive Suppression and Constrained Minimization
180
559 Calibration 7 8 9
181

222 Simultaneous Estimation of Several Parameters
19
223 Optimum Detection
20
23 Optimum Receiver
22
232 Optimum Detector
25
The Ambiguity Function
28
234 Detection Performance
31
235 Conclusion
34
References
36
Application to Radar
39
32 DopplerRange Ambiguity
45
Time Duration Frequency and Bandwidth Modulation
46
322 Measurement of the Time Delay or of the Frequency of Signal
48
323 Simultaneous Measurement of the Time Delay and the Doppler Shift
50
324 DopplerRange Ambiguity Function
53
33 Examples of DopplerRange Ambiguity Functions
54
331 Gaussian Pulse
55
332 Pulse with Linear Frequency Modulation Chirp
56
333 Pulse Compression
59
334 Encoded Pulse Sequence
60
335 Pulse Train
62
336 Reception of a Pulse Train
66
337 Range and Velocity Ambiguities
69
338 Constant False Alarm Rate Detection
70
Synthetic Aperture Radar
72
35 Angular Location
77
351 AngleRangeDoppler Optimum Receiver
78
Sum Channel Difference Channel
82
353 Radar AngleError Detection
87
354 Comments
89
36 Implementation
90
362 Functional Design
92
364 Hardware and Software Development
93
37 Systematic Signal Processing
94
References
95
Relation Between the Duration and Bandwidth of a Signal
96
Radar Range Equation
97
3B2 SignaltoNoise Ratio
98
3B3 Performance
100
Spectral Purity
101
3C1 Phase and Amplitude Noise
102
Pulse Radar with High Repetition Frequency
105
3C4 Application
106
Optimum Reception in Colored Noise
107
42 Introduction
109
43 Receiver Structure
110
432 Reception by Subtraction of the Colored Part of the Noise
114
44 Application to Spurious Echoes or Jammers
115
45 Stationary Colored Noise and Infinite Observation Time
118
451 Whitening
119
452 Subtraction of the Colored Part of the Noise
120
453 Optimum Processing Gain
122
46 Discussion
123
KarhunenLoeve Expansion
124
4A2 Properties of the Integral Equation
126
Estimation of a Random Signal in the Presence of White NoiseWienerHopf Equation
129
Adaptive Processing
133
52 Introduction
139
532 Adaptive Filtering Using a Transversal Filter
144
533 Convergence
148
534 Application
150
54 Adaptive Whitening
152
542 Adaptive Whitening by Lattice Filter
157
55 Sensor Arrays
160
5510 Coherent Targets
186
5511 Sidelobe Blanking
189
56 Discussion
190
57 Passive Listening
191
572 Maximum Likelihood Signal + Noise
193
MUSIC
194
574 Comparison
197
575 Generalized Correlation 22
200
576 Discussion
202
References
204
Matrix Inversion Lemma
205
Target and Background Signatures
207
62 Radar or Sonar Reflection
212
621 Polarization 13
213
622 RCS
217
623 Simple Examples
219
624 Sonar Reflection 5
223
63 Modeling of Nondeformable Targets
224
Radar Holography 12
242
633 Stochastic Models 13
248
634 Conclusion
252
Impulse Response and Transverse Response
253
64 Deformable Targets
258
642 Jet Engine Signatures
260
643 Vehicle Signatures
261
65 Background Signatures
263
Clutter
264
652 Multiple Paths
269
653 Propagation
272
66 Passive Listening
273
References
275
A Multifrequency Ground Clutter Model
277
6A2 ThreeComponent Ground Clutter Spectrum
278
Signature Adapted Processing
283
711 Radar Target Recognition
284
712 Tracking of Extended Targets
286
714 LowFrequency Radars
288
716 Passive Systems
289
72 Radar Target Recognition
290
723 Automatic Classification of Targets
292
73 Extended Target Tracking
306
732 Glint Modeling
315
733 Antiglint Processing
317
74 Target Extraction from Clutter
319
741 Use of Frequency Agility After Detection
320
742 Use of Polarimetry 17
323
743 Ambiguous Airborne Radars
330
744 Airborne Detection of Slow Moving Targets 23 24
337
751 Scope
347
753 Propagation 30
353
754 Clutter and Interference
358
755 Target Recognition
359
756 System Aspects
362
76 Wideband Radars
365
761 Wideband and UltraWideband Radars 6 34 35
366
762 Wideband Radar Processing
368
77 Periodic Signal Passive Listening
371
References
375
Variance of a Rayleigh Variable at the Output of a Logarithmic Amplifier
377
Probability Density of the Instantaneous Frequency of a Gaussian Random Process
378
About the Author
381
Index
383
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