BROKEN BONES: Anthropological Analysis of Blunt Force Trauma (2nd Ed.)
The editors, along with 15 outstanding contributors, comprehensively explore and provide an overview of the principles behind the interpretation of skeletal blunt force trauma. This expanded second edition provides a discussion on how to train for a career in forensic anthropology and offers guidance on how to complete a thorough trauma analysis. It also provides the labels given to different kinds of fractures and the biomechanical forces required to cause bone to fail and fracture. The text provides a theoretical framework for both evaluating published trauma studies and designing new ones. Experimental trauma research is an area ripe for research, and criteria to consider in choosing which non-human species to use in an actualistic study are offered. Common circumstances in which blunt force trauma is encountered are described. Information is provided on a variety of causes of death due to blunt force trauma. These causes range from accidental deaths to homicides due to blunt force from motor vehicle accidents, falls, strangulation, child and elder abuse, among others. Epidemiological information on whom is most likely affected by these various kinds of blunt force trauma is drawn from both the clinical and forensic literature. The most fundamental elements of the text are offered in four chapters where, bone by bone, fracture by fracture, the authors describe what to call each kind of fracture, what is known about how much force is required to break the bone that way, and fracture specific epidemiological information. This particular section of the text provides an invaluable reference source for forensic anthropologists and other osteologists to consult when looking at and trying to classify a bone fracture. Case studies are included to bring the book full circle back to considering the micro and macro bone changes that are seen when bone fails and fractures. The case studies are illustrative both of the concepts described through the book and of the high quality analyses forensic anthropologists contribute to medicolegal investigations of death every day. The text is further enhanced by 150 illustrations, some in color. This completely updated and expanded new volume is an essential reference for the forensic anthropology professional.
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207 Condylar fractures of the distal humerus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Transcolumnar fractures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Single and bi-column supracondylar fractures.
395 Distal articulating surface of the left tibia. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Right side of skull as viewed upon removal of shirt. . . . . . . . . . . 397 Lateral and oblique views of right side of skull after maceration of ...
As the fracture encircles the bone, the shaft becomes progressively more unstable such that a longitudinal fracture develops, which unites the proximal and distal ends of the 45-degree angle fracture (Porta 2005).
For example, a human tibia is more likely to fracture at the distal end, where the cross sectional geometry has a lower area moment of inertia than proximally, where the area moment of inertia is higher. Although in the distal tibia ...
At that point, the fracture deviates at right angles, creating a vertical or longitudinal split in either or both the proximal or distal portions of the bone. The remaining unfractured portion of the bone remains bent or bowed.
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Section III B
Section III C
Section III D
Section III E
Section III F
Section III G
Section III H
Section III I
Section III A