Page images
PDF
EPUB

five ;

and the circumference AB, which is the fifth part of the whole, contains three; therefore BC, their difference, contains two of the same parts : bisect * BC in E; therefore BE, EC are, *30. S each of them, the fifteenth part of the whole circumference ABCD: therefore if the straight lines BE, EC be drawn, and straight lines equal to them be placed round * in the whole circle, * 1. 4. an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon will be inscribed in it. Which was to be done.

And in the same manner as was done in the pentagon, if through the points of division made by inscribing the quindecagon, straight lines be drawn touching the circle, an equilateral and equiangular quindecagon will be described about it: and likewise, as in the pentagon, a circle may be inscribed in a given equilateral and equiangular quindecagon, and circumscribed about it.

126

THE

ELEMENTS OF EUCLID.

BOOK V.

DEFINITIONS.

I. A less magnitude is said to be a part of a greater

magnitude when the less measures the greater; that is, 'when the less is contained a certain ‘number of times exactly in the greater.'

II. A greater magnitude is said to be a multiple of

a less, when the greater is measured by the less, that is, 'when the greater contains the less a certain number of times exactly.'

III. “ Ratio

a mutual relation of two magnitudes “ of the same kind to one another, in respect • of quantity.”

IV. Magnitudes are said to have a ratio to one an

other, when the less can be multiplied so as to exceed the other.

V. The first of four magnitudes is said to have the

same ratio to the second, which the third has to the fourth, when any equimultiples whatsoever of the first and third being taken, and any equimultiples whatsoever of the second and fourth; if the multiple of the first be less than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also less than that of the fourth : or, if the multiple of the first be equal to that of the second, the multiple of the third is also equal to that of the fourth : or, if the multiple of the first be greater than that of the second, the multiple of the third is also greater than that of the fourth.

VI. Magnitudes which have the same ratio are

called proportionals. 'N. B. When four mag' nitudes are proportionals, it is usually ex. pressed by saying, the first is to the second, as the third to the fourth.'

[ocr errors]

VII. When of the equimultiples of four magnitudes

(taken as in the fifth definition), the multiple of the first is greater than that of the second, but the multiple of the third is not greater than the multiple of the fourth; then the first is said to have to the second a greater ratio than the third magnitude has to the fourth : and, on the contrary, the third is said to have to the fourth a less ratio than the first has to the second.

VIII. Analogy or proportion, is the similitude of ratios.

IX.
Proportion consists in three terms at least.

a

X. When three magnitudes are proportionals, the

first is said to have to the third the duplicate ratio of that which it has to the second.

XI. When four magnitudes are continual propor

tionals, the first is said to have to the fourth the triplicate ratio of that which it has to the second, and so on, quadruplicate, &c. increasing the denomination still by unity, in any number of proportionals.

Definition A, to wit of compound ratio. When there are any number of magnitudes of

the same kind, the first is said to have to the last of them the ratio compounded of the ratio which the first has to the second, and of the ratio which the second has to the third, and of the ratio which the third has to the fourth,

and so on unto the last magnitude. For example, if A, B, C, D be four magnitudes

of the same kind, the first A is said to have to the last D the ratio compounded of the ratio of A to B, and of the ratio of B to C, and of the ratio of C to D; or, the ratio of A to D is said to be compounded of the ratios of A to B,

B to C, and C to D. And if A has to B the same ratio which E has

to F; and B to C the same ratio that G has to H; and C to D the same that K has to L; then, by this definition, A is said to have to D the ratio compounded of ratios which are the same with the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L. And the same thing is to be understood when it is more briefly expressed by saying, A has to D the ratio compounded of

the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L. In like manner, the same things being supposed,

if M has to N the same ratio which A has to

[ocr errors]

6

[ocr errors]

:

D; then, for shortness sake, M is said to have to N the ratio compounded of the ratios of E to F, G to H, and K to L.

XII. In proportionals, the antecedent terms are called

homologous to one another, as also the consequents to one another. Geometers make use of the following technical 'words, to signify certain ways of changing • either the order or magnitude of propor• tionals, so that they continue still to be proportionals.'

XIII. Permutando, or alternando, by permutation or

alternately. This word is used when there are four proportionals, and it is inferred that the first has the same ratio to the third which the second has to the fourth; or that the first is to the third as the second to the fourth: as is shown in the 16th Prop. of this fifth book.

XIV. Invertendo, by inversion; when there are four

proportionals, and it is inferred, that the second is to the first as the fourth to the third. Prop. B. Book 5.

XV. Componendo, by composition; when there are

four proportionals, and it is inferred that the first together with the second, is to the second, as the third together with the fourth, is to the fourth. 18th Prop. Book 5.

XVI. Dividendo, by division; when there are four

proportionals, and it is inferred, that the excess of the first above the second, is to the second, as the excess of the third above the fourth, is to the fourth. 17th Prop. Book 5.

« PreviousContinue »