Page images
PDF
EPUB

*13. L

Because every interior angle ABC, with its adjacent exterior ABD, is equal * to two right angles ; therefore all the interior, together with all the exterior angles of the figure, are equal to twice as many right D B angles as there are sides of the figure; that is, by the foregoing corollary, they are equal to all the interior angles of the figure, together with four right angles; therefore all the exterior angles are equal to four right angles.

PROP. XXXIII. THEOR.
The straight lines which join the extremities of

tưo equal and parallel straight lines towards
the same parts, are also themselves equal and
parallel.

Let AB, CD be equal and parallel straight lines, and A B joined towards the same parts by the straight lines AC, BD: AC, BD shall be equal and parallel.

Join BC; and because AB is parallel to CD, and BC meets them, the alternate angles* ABC, *29. 1. BCD are equal : and because AB is equal to CD, and BC common to the two triangles ABC, DCB, the two sides AB, BC are equal to the two DC, CB, each to each : and the angle ABC was proved to be equal to the angle BCD; therefore the base AC is equal to the base BD, and the triangle ABC to the triangle BCD, and the other angles to the other angles,* each *4. l. to each, to which the equal sides are opposite : therefore the angle ACB is equal to the angle CBD: and because the straight line BC meets the two straight lines AC, BD, and makes the alternate angles ACB, CBD equal to one

*27.1. another, AC is parallel * to BD: and it was

shown to be equal to it. Therefore, straight lines, &c. Q. E. D.

* 29. I

PROP. XXXIV. THEOR.
The opposite sides and angles of parallelograms

are equal to one another, and the diameter
bisects them, that is, divides them into two
equal parts.
N.B. A parallelogram is a four-sided figure, of which the
opposite sides are parallel : and the diameter is the straight
line joining two of its opposite angles.

Let ACDB be a parallelogram, of which BC is a diameter: the opposite sides and angles of the figure shall be equal to one another; and the diameter BC shall bisect it.

Because AB is parallel to
CD, and BC meets them, the A
alternate angles ABC, BCD
are equal* to one another: and
because AC is parallel to BD,

and BC meets them, the alter* 29. 1. nate angles ACB,CBD are equal* to one another:

wherefore the two triangles ABC, CBD have two angles ABC, BCA in the one, equal to two angles BCD, CBD in the other, each to each, and one side BC common to the two triangles, which is adjacent to their equal angles ; therefore their other sides are equal, each to each,

and the third angle of the one to the third angle * 26. 1. of the other, * viz. the side AB to the side CD,

and AC to BD, and the angle BAC equal to the angle BDC: and because the angle ABC is

equal to the angle BCD, and the angle CBD to +2 Ax. the angle ACB, the whole angle ABD is equalt

to the whole angle ACD: and the angle BAC has been shown to be equal to the angle BDC: therefore the opposite sides and angles of parallelograms are equal to one another. Also, their diameter bisects them: for AB being equal to CD, and BC common, the two AB, BC are

*

:

equal to the two DC, CB, each to each; and the angle ABC has been proved equal to the angle BCD; therefore the triangle ABC is equal * to the triangle BCD, and the diameter *4. 1. BC divides the parallelogram ACDB into two equal parts. Q. E. D.

2d and 3d

ין

* 34. 1.

PROP. XXXV. THEOR. Parallelograms upon the same base, and between the same parallels, are equal to one another.

Let the parallelograms ABCD, EBCF be See the upon the same base BC, and between the same parallels AF, BC: the parallelogram ABCD figures. shall be equal to the parallelogram EBCF.

If the sides AD, DF of the parallelograms ABCD, DBCF, opposite to the base BC, he terminated in the same point D; it is plain that each of the paral- B lelograms is double * of the triangle BDC; and they are therefore equal t to +6 Ax. one another.

But, if the sides AD, EF, opposite to the base BC of the parallelograms ABCD, EBCF, be not terminated in the same point; then, because ABCD is a parallelogram, AD is equal * to BC; * 34. 1. for the same reason EF is equal to BC; wherefore AD is equal* to EF; and DE is common therefore the whole, or the remainder, AE is equal* to the whole, or the remainder, DF: AB * 2 or 3 also is equalf to DC; therefore the two EA, 43.4

. . AB are equal to the two FD, DC, each to each; and the exterior angle

DE FA E DI
FDC is equal
to the interior
EAB: therefore

B

B the base EB is equal to the base FC, and the triangle EAB equal * to the triangle FDC. Take the triangle * 4. 1,

[ocr errors]

*] As.

*

Ax.

* 29. !

:

FDC from the trapezium ABCF, and from the

same trapezium take the triangle EAB, and the *3 Ax. remainders* are equal; that is, the parallelogram

ABCD is equal to the parallelogram EBCF. Therefore parallelograms upon the same base, &c. Q. E. D.

*

PROP. XXXVI. THEOR. Parallelograms upon equal bases, and between the

sume parallels, are equal to one another. Let ABCD, EFGH, be parallelograms upon D) E H equal bases BC, FG and between the same paralels AH, BG: the paral.elogram ABCD) shall be

B -qual to EFGH.

Join BE, CH; and be+ Hyp. cause BC is equal + to FG, and FG to * EH, BC *34. i; is equal to + EH: and they are t parallels, and + Hyp. joined towards the same parts by the straight

lines BE, CH : but straight lines which join the

extremities of equal and parallel straight lines * 53. 1. towards the same parts, are themselves * equal

and parallel; therefore EB, HC are both equal + Dei. and parallel ; and therefore EBCH is at paral

lelogram; and it is equal * to ABCD, because they are upon the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC, AH : for the like reason, .the parallelogram EFGH is equal to the same

EBCH: therefore the parallelogram ABCD is +1 Ax. equal t to EFGH. Wherefore parallelograms,

&c. Q. E. D.

[ocr errors]

*

St. 1.

*

*35.1.

PROP. XXXVII. THEOR. Triangles upon the same base, and between the

same parallels, are equal to one another. Let the triangles ABC, DBC, be upon the

same base BC, and between E the same parallels AD, BC: the triangle ABC shall be equal to the triangle DBC. Producet AD both ways

+2 Post. to the points E, F, and through B draw* BE parallel toCA; and through *31. 1. C draw CF parallel to BD : therefore each of the figures EBCA, DBCF is at parallelogram : Def. and EBCA is equal * to DBCF, because they 35.2. are upon the same base BC, and between the same parallels BC, EF; and the triangle ABC is the half of the parallelogram EBCA, because the diameter AB bisects * it: and the triangle *34. L DBC is the half of the parallelogram DBCF, because the diameter DC bisects it : but the halves of equal things are * equal; therefore the *? Ak, triangle ABC is equal to the triangle DBC Wherefore triangles, &c. Q. E. D.

1

*

:

PROP. XXXVIII. THEOR. Triangles upon equal bases, and between the same

parallels, are equal to one another. Let the triangles ABC, DEF be upon equal bases BC, EF, and between the same parallels BF, AD: the triangle ABC shall be equal to the triangle DEF.

Produce t AD both ways to the points G, H, 12 Post. and through B draw BG parallel* to CA, and *31. 1. through F draw FH parallel to ED: then each of the figures GBCA,

G

H DEFH, is at paral

+ Der lelogram: and they are equal * to one another, because they are upon

B equal bases BC, EF,

CE and between the same parallels BF, GH ; and the triangle ABC is the half of the parallelogram GBCĂ, because the diameter AB bisects * it; and the triangle DEF * 34 1.

34. 1.

:

*

* 36. 1.

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »