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habit of investigation and effort, which can only be acquired by meeting and overcoming difficulties. This period, which must be made longer or shorter according to the character of the pupil, or the necessity that his circumstances in life may impose, is succeeded by the period of acquisi. cion, in which the mind is more especially called upon to exercise the powers which have been previously developed and cultivated, in the acquisition of such positive knowledge as may prepare the indivi.lual for life and action. The inductive process is still employed as much as possible, not only because it has become, for many cases, the shortest and most agreeable, but because it is important to maintain the habits it has pro. duced, and invigorate the faculties it has served to develope.
“ But still it is far less employed than previously, and the pupil is never suffered to waste his time in attempting to create a science for himself, and thus deprived of the benefit of the experience of sages and centuries. On the contrary, they deem his mind capable of being elevated even more rapidly by following the processes of patient investigation, by which the most exalted minds have arrived at results that astonish and delight him, and of thus learning to imitate strides, which seem to him like those of a giant, and to cultivate those habits of untiring attention, which the greatest philosophers have declared to be the principal source of that telescopic glance, that almost unerring power of discrimination, which seems to others so nearly miraculous.
“Such is the Productive System, by which the powers of the pupil are called into complete exercise by requiring him to attempt a task unaided, and then assisting him in correcting his own errors, or returning from his own wanderings, before he is discouraged by the waste of time and the fruitlessness of his efforts. They distinguish carefully between knowledge and the means of obtaining it. To cultivate the senses, and present the objects which they are capable of examining, is to open to the child the sources of knowledge-to place before him a book which is ever open, and in which he may every moment, read. This, they maintain, is the first and most obvious part of education, according to the dictates of
It is one in which nothing but truth is presented to him, and which, by calling his powers into constant exercise, ensures their improvement, and cultivates a spirit of investigation."
The preceding extracts are taken from Art. 1. Vol. I. No. VI. of the American Journal of Education, New Series. The author avails himself of this opportunity to express his obligations to the conductors of this valuable periodical. A constant perusal of its pages has afforded him many valuable ideas on the subject of education, and he cheerfully acknow. ledges material assistance derived from it in the preparation of the “Productive System of English Grammar," which is now respectfully submitted to the candid examination of the public.
I. OF THE NOUN.
5. What is your name?
What is the name of the town in which you live ?
What does the word noun mean? Ans. The word noun means name. Q. What, then, may your name be called ? 1. A NOUN. Q. What'may all names be called ? 2. Nouns. Q. Boston is the name of a place: is Boston a noun ? and if so, why! 3. Boston is a noun, because it is a name. Q. Hudson is the name of a river: is Hudson a noun, and why?
Book is the name of something to read in: is book a noun, and why? Q. Will you now inform me what a noun is ? 4. A noun is the name of any person, place, or thing. Q. Will you mention two nouns the names of persons ? two, the names f things ? iwo, the names of different places ?
Q. Will you tell me which words are the nouns in the following sentences, as I read them to you?
“ Thomas and Joseph are in the house."
Q. What is the meaning of the word number ; as, “ The number of burn tons on your coat ?''
5. Number means one or more. Q. What does the word singular mean? 6. It means one. Q. When, then, I speak of one thing only, as chair, what number is it? 7. Singular number. Q. What, then, does the singular number of nouns denote? 8. The singular number denotes but one thing.
Q. Of what number is book, and why?
9. Book is of the singular number, because it means but one. Of what number is chair, and why?
1 What does the word plural mean? 10. It means more than one. Q. Of what number lamps, and why?
ii. Lamps is of the plural number, because it means more than one.
8: By malading sumbetove, inkstands and wand es to box, we have boxes. How, then, is the plural nuniber of nouns usually formed ?
12. By adding s or es to the singular.
Q. Will you spell the plural of ounce? glass ? window ? theatre ? antecedent ? church? labyrinth?
Q. How many numbers do nouns appear to have, and what are they! 13. Two, the singular and plural.
Q. Will you name a noun of the singular number? one of the pluras nurnber?
Q. What does the word gender mean? 14. Gender signifjes sex. Q. What does the word masculine mean? 15. It means male. Q. John is the name of a male : of what gender or sex, then, is John ? 16. Of the masculine or male gender. Q. What nouns, then, are said to be of the masculine gender ? 17. The names of males. Q. What gender, then, is man, and why?
18. Man is of the masculine gender, because it is the name of a male.
Q. Of what gender is uncle, and why? father? why? Q. What does feminine mean? 19. It means female. Q. Susan is the name of a female: of what gender, then, is Susan ? 20. Of the feminine gender. Q. What nouns, then, are said to be of the feminine gender ? 21. The names of females. Q. What gender is woman, and why?
22. Woman is of the feminine gender, because it is the name of a female.
Q. Of what gender is aunt, and why? daughter? why?
Q. Chair is the name neither of a male nor a female : what gender, then may it properly be called ? 24. Neuter gender. Q. What nouns, then, may be said to be of the neuter gender ?
25. The names of objects that are neither males nor females.
Q. Of what gender is inkstand, and why?
26. Neuter gender, because it is the name neither of a male nor female.
Q. Of what gender is bench? why? chair? why?
Q. Parent, you know, is the name either of father or mother, that is, it is a name common to both : of what gender, then, shall we call such nouns as parent, bird, &c. ? 27. Common gender. Q. What nouns, then, may be said to be of the common gender ?
28. The names of such animals as may be either males or females.
Q. Of what gender is sheep, and why?
29. Sheep is of the common gender, because it is the name either of a male or female.
Q. Of what gender is robin, and why?
30. Four—the masculine, the feminine, the neuter, and the common.
Q. Will you name a noun of the masculine gender ? one of the feminine ? one of the neuter ? one of the common?
Q. Will you name the gender and number of each noun in the following sentences, as I read them to you
" James and William.' “ Slate and pencil.” • Johr and the girls.”
“ Women and birds."
IV. PROPER AND COMMON NOUNS.
Q. What is the meaning of the word common; as,
A common com. plaint ?"
31. Common means general.
Q. Although there are a vast many male children in the world, each one may be called by the general name of boy : what kind of a noun, then. would you call boy?
32. A common noun. Q. When, then, is a noun called common? 33. When it is a general name. Q. What does the word proper mean? 34. It means fit or particular. Q. John, you know, is the particular name of a boy: what kind of a poun, then, may it be called ? 35. A
proper noun. Q. When, then, may a noun be called proper ? 36. When it is a particular name. Q. What kind of a noun is Susan, and why?
37. Susan is a proper noun, because it is a particular name.
Q. What kind of a noun is John, and why?
Q. What kind of a noun is river, and why?
38. 'River is a common noun, because it is a general name. 8. be
What kind of a noun is girls ? Mary? town? New York ? London? boai ? chain ?
Q. Will you now tell me which words are the nouns in the following sen. tences; which are proper, and which common; also their gender and number? 66 Thomas and John."
King and queen.” “ Susan and Mary.”
“ House and barn."
Q. When a person, in speaking, says, “ I, John, will do it," what person do grammarians call John i
39. The first
Q. When I say, " James, mind your studies," what person do grammarians call James ?
41. The second person, being the person spoken to. Q. When, then, is a noun of the second person ?
42. When it is the name of the person spoken to, or addressed.
Q.“ William, James has come." What person is William, and why?! 43. Of the second person, because William is spoken co.
Q. When I say, " William, James has come,” I am speaking to William about James : of what person, then, is James, and why?
44. Of the third person, because James was spoken of; that is, I was talking about James.
Q. When, then, is a noun of the third person ? 45. When it is spoken of.
Q: “ Thomas, Rufus is in the garden.”. What person is Thomas ? why? Is Rufus ? why?
Q. How many persons do nouns appear to have, and what are they? 46. Three persons -- the first, second, and third.
Q. Will you inform me which of the following nouns are proper, which common; also their gender, number, and person? “ I, James, of Boston.”
“Boy and girl." “Henry, study your book." “ William and his sister.”
Q. We say of an animal, for instance a horse, when he is fat, that " He is in a good case ;" and, when he is lean, that “ He is in a bad case ;" what, therefore, does the word case mean?
47. Case means condition, state, &c.