Heroes and Villains
Hercules, Jesus, James Bond, Luke Skywalker, Gandalf, Frodo, Harry Potter, Buffy Summers, Spiderman, Batman, Captain Kirk, Dr. Who, Darth Vader, Sauron, Voldemort, Lex Luthor, Dr. Doom, the Daleks, the Borg. Almost anybody living in the developed West would be able to group these individuals into two camps: the heroes and the villains. However, what criteria they may use to do this is less clear.
Mike Alsford introduces us to a range of heroic and villainous archetypes on a journey through film, television, comic books, and literature. On the way, he addresses questions such as: What is a true hero? What is a true villain? Have we misunderstood these terms? What kind of societal values do our mythical heroes and villains represent? In trying to understand the extremes of hero and villain we are made more aware of our own ethical standards and given a space in which to explore contemporary concerns over notions of right and wrong, good and bad.
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simply for some desired end as a consequence of moral activity , demands both
that the moral law itself be unconditioned , and that we , as rational beings , be
free from all determination as regards our compliance with it . ' Ought ' , argues ...
7 It is this understanding of rational beings as ends rather than means that forms
the foundation of what Kant refers to as the ' Kingdom of ends ' . A rational being
is a member of this Kingdom when they subject themselves to the very laws they
The spirit – the true seat of human identity – is governed by rational principles
and the rule of the will while the flesh is ... is not any particular animal but a
monstrous hybrid that stalks us and seeks to subvert the pure rationality of our
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