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Exports: $12.2 billion (f.o.b., 1978); iron and steel products, machinery and equipment, lumber, textiles, paper products, chemicals Imports: $16.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles and clothing, petroleum, foodstuffs Major trade partners: (1978) 37.2% West Germany, 8.9% Italy, 6.8% Switzerland, 3.9% U.K., 3.0% U.S.; 79.8% developed countries, 59.9 EC; 11.3% Communist countries Aid: (1970–78) bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and OOF), $633 million Budget: expenditures, $18.3 billion; revenues, $14.8 billion; deficit, $3.5 billion (1978) Monetary conversion rate: 14.52 shillings=US$1, 1978 average - --~~ Fiscal year; calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 6,517 km total; 5.877 km government-owned; 5,397 km standard gage (1.435 m) of which 2,730 km electrified and 1,333 km double tracked; 480 km narrow gage (0.760 m) of which 91 km electrified; 640 km privately owned (1.435- and 1,000-meter gage) Highways: approximately 33,600 km total national classified network, including 10,400 km federal and 23,200 km provincial roads; about 20,800 km paved (bituminous, concrete, stone block) and 12,800 km unpaved (gravel, crushed stone, stabilized soil); additional 60,800 km communal roads (mostly gravel, crushed stone, earth) and 1,012 km autobahn Inland waterways: 427 km Ports: 2 major river (Vienna, Linz) Pipelines: 554 km crude oil; 2,611 km natural gas; 171 km refined products Civil air: 19 major transport aircraft, including 1 leased in Airfields: 50 total, 49 usable; 15 with permanent-surface runways; 4 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 6 with runways 1,220–2,439 m Telecommunications: highly developed and efficient; extensive TV and radiobroadcast systems with 160 AM, 190 FM, and 350 TV stations; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station; 2.44 million telephones (32 per 100 popl.)

DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 1,778,000; 1,506,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually about 60,000 Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $859 million; about 3.8% of the federal budget


LAND 11,396 km”; 1% cultivated, 29% forested, 70% built on, wasteland, and other

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ECONOMY GNP; $825 million (1978 est.), $3,650 per capita; real growth rate 1978 est., 5% Agriculture: food importer, main crops—fish, fruits, vegetables Major industries: tourism, cement, oil refining, lumber, salt production, rum, aragonite, pharmaceuticals, spiral weld, and steel pipe Electric power: 250,000 kW capacity (1977); 680 million kWh produced (1977), 3,150 kWh per capita Exports: $2.1 billion (f.o.b., 1978); fuel oil, pharmaceuticals, cement, rum Imports: $2.4 billion (c.i.f., 1978); crude oil, foodstuffs, manufactured goods Major trade partners: non-oil exports—U.S. 41%, U.K. 12%, Canada 3%; non-oil imports—U.S. 73%, U.K. 13%, Canada 2% (1973) Aid: economic—bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (1970-77) from U.S. $34.3 million; from other Western countries, $136.7 million; no military aid Budget: (1978 projected), revenues, $186 million; expenditures, $199 million

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GOVERNMENT Legal name: State of Bahrain Type: traditional monarchy; independence declared in 1971 Capital. Manama Legal system: based on Islamic law and English common law; constitution went into effect December 1973 National holiday: 16 December Branches: Amir rules with help of a cabinet led by Prime Minister; a National Assembly, made up of cabinet and 30 directly elected members, was formed in early 1974; Amir dissolved assembly in August 1975 and suspended the constitutional provision for election of the assembly; independently judiciary Government leader: Amir ‘Isa ibn Salman Al Khalifa Political parties and pressure groups: political parties prohibited; several pressure groups although numerous small clandestine groups are active Communists: negligible Member of: Arab League, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IBRD, ICAO, IMF, NAM. OAPEC, U.N., UNESCO, WHO


GDP: $1.4 billion (1977 est.), annual growth rate 8.8% in GDP, $5,130 per capita, dominated by oil industry; 1977 average daily crude oil production, 56,000 bbls (oil expected to last 12 years if no new discoveries are made); 1975 nonassociated natural gas production, 102 billion ft“, government oil revenues for 1977 are estimated at $470 million



Agriculture: produces dates, alfalfa, vegetables; dairy and poultry farming; fishing; not self-sufficient in food Major industries: petroleum refining, aluminum smelting, ship repairing, shrimp fishing, pearls and sailmaking on a small scale; major development projects include flourmill, and ISA town; OAPEC dry dock opened in 1977 Electric power: 770,000 kW capacity (1978); 3.7 billion kWh produced (1978), 13,010 kWh per capita Exports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1978); non-oil exports (including reexports), $396.8 million (1978); oil exports, $1.5 billion (1978) Imports: $2.0 billion (c.i.f., 1978); non-oil imports $1.1 billion (1978); oil imports $882.3 million (1978) Major trade partners: Saudi Arabia, U.K., U.S., Japan, EC Budget; (1977) $291 million current expenditure, $357 million capital Monetary conversion rate: l Bahrain dinar-US$2.58 (1978) Fiscal year; calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Highways: 93 km bituminous surfaced; undetermined mileage of natural surface tracks Ports: 1 major (Bahrain) Pipelines: crude oil, 56 km; refined products, 16 km; natural gas, 32 km Civil air; 2 major transport aircraft Airfields: 2 total, 2 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 1 with runway 1,2202,439 m Telecommunications: excellent international telecommunications; limited domestic services; 39,000 telephones (10.7 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and 1 TV station, 1 Indian Ocean satellite station; tropospheric scatter and microwave to Qatar and United Arab Emirates

DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 64,000; fit for military service, 37,000 Supply: from several West European countries, especially France and U.K. Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1978; $42.8 million, 6% of central government budget


LAND 142,500 km”; 66% arable (including cultivated and

fallow), 18% not available for cultivation, 16% forested Land boundaries: 2,535 km

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm, economic
including fishing 200 nm
Coastline: 580 km

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GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Bangladesh Type: independent republic since December 1971; Government of President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman overthrown in August 1975; two other coups followed; following 4 years of martial law rule presidential elections were held in June 1978 and a new parliament was elected in February 1979 Capital; Dacca Political subdivisions: 19 districts, 413 thanas (counties), 4,053 unions (village groupings) Legal system: based on English common law; constitution adopted December 1972; amended January 1975 to more authoritarian presidential system, changed by proclamation in April 1977 to reflect Islamic character of nation; President has promised a new constitution will be written in 1979 National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March


Branches: constitution provides for unicameral legislature, strong president; independent judiciary

Government leader: President, Lt. Gen. Ziaur Rahman

Suffrage; universal over age 18

Elections: Second Parliament (House of the Nation) elected in February 1979; elections every 5 years; President elected June 3, 1978



Major political parties and leaders: Bangladesh National Party (formed September 1978), Zaur Rahman; Awami League (leftist faction), Abdul Malik Ukil; Awami League (moderate faction), Mizanur Rahman Choudhury; United People's Party, Kazi Zafar Ahmed; Jatiyo Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist Party), M. A. Awal, Bangladesh Communist Party (pro-Soviet), Manindra Moni Singh

Communists: 2,500 members (est.)

Member of ADB, Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organization, Colombo Plan, Commonwealth, ESCAP, G-77, GATT, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IMF, ILO, NAM, U.N., UNCTAD, UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WTO

ECONOMY GNP; $7.8 billion est. (FY78, current prices), $100 per capita; real growth, 7.4% (FY78) Agriculture: large subsistence farming, heavily dependent on monsoon rainfall; main crops are jute and rice; shortages—grain, cotton, and oilseeds Fishing: catch 821,000 metric tons (FY76) Major industries: jute manufactures, food processing and cotton textiles Electric power; 975,000 kW capacity (1978); 1.6 billion kWh produced (1978), 20 kWh per capita Exports: $498 million (FY78); raw and manufactured jute, leather, tea Imports: $1,349 million (FY78 est.); foodgrains, fuels, raw cotton, fertilizer, manufactured products Major trade partners: exports—U.S. 14%, U.K. 13%; imports—Japan 22%, U.S. 10% (FY77) Budget. (FY78 est.) domestic revenues, $823 million; expenditures, $1,578 million Monetary conversion rate: 15.52 taka = US$1 (February 1979) Fiscal year: 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads; 2,909 km total (1979); 1,910 km meter gage (1,000 m), 964 km broad gage (1.676 m), 35 km narrow gage (0.762 m), 300 km double track; government-owned Highways: 45,633 km total; 4,076 km paved, 2,693 km gravel, 38,864 km earth Inland waterways: 7,000 km; river steamers navigate main waterways Ports: 1 major, Chittagong; 5 minor Pipelines: 150 km natural gas Civil air; 9 major transport aircraft Airfields: 23 total, 16 usable; 18 with permanent surface runways; 3 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 9 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: adequate international radiocommunications and landline service; fair domestic wire and microwave service; fair broadcast service; 100,000 (est.) telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 9 AM, 6 FM, 7 TV stations, and 1 ground satellite station

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