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National holiday: 30 November Branches: legislature consisting of a 21-member appointed Senate and a 24-member elected House of Assembly; cabinet headed by Prime Minister Government leader: Prime Minister J. M. G. "Tom" Adams; Governor General Sir Deighton H. L. Ward Suffrage; universal over age 18 Elections: House of Assembly members have terms no longer than 5 years; last general election held 2 September 1976 Political parties and leaders: Barbados Labor Party (BLP), J. M. G. “Tom" Adams; Democratic Labor Party (DLP), Errol Barrow Voting strength (1976 election): Barbados Labor Party (BLP), 53%; Democratic Labor Party, 46%; Independent, negligible; House of Assembly seats—BLP 17, DLP 7 Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: People's Progressive Movement (PPM), a small black-nationalist group led by Calvin Alleyne Member of: CARICOM, Commonwealth, FAO, G-77, GATT, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, IDB, ILO, IMCO, IMF, ISO, ITU, IWC–International Wheat Council, OAS, SELA, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO

ECONOMY GDP: $426 million (1978), $1,650 per capita; real growth rate 1978, 4.4% Agriculture: main products—sugarcane, subsistence foods Major industries: tourism, sugar milling, light manufacturing Electric power: 107,000 kW capacity (1977); 220 million kWh produced (1977), 920 kWh per capita Exports: $102 million (f.o.b., 1978); sugar and sugarcane byproducts, clothing Imports: $315 million (c.i.f., 1978); foodstuffs, machinery, manufactured goods Major trade partners: exports—34% U.S., 27% CARICOM, 10% U.K., 29% other; imports—25% U.S., 19% U.K., 16% CARICOM, 7% Canada, 33% other (1977) Aid: economic—bilateral commitments including Ex-Im (1970-77) from U.S., $4.5 million; (1970-77) from other Western countries, $44.2 million; no military aid Budget; (1978/79) revenues, $129 million; expenditures, $191 million Monetary conversion rate; 2 Barbados dollars=US$1 Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

Railroads: none
Highways: 1,450 km total; 1,350 km paved, and 100 km
gravel, and earth
Ports: 1 major (Bridgetown), 2 minor
Civil air; 5 major transport aircraft (including 3 leased in)
Airfields: 1 with permanent-surface runway 2,440-3,659 m

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Agriculture: livestock production predominates; main crops—grains, beets, potatoes; 80% self-sufficient in food; caloric intake, 3,230 calories per day per capita (1969-70) Fishing: catch 39,311 metric tons (1978); exports $57 million (1978), imports $279 million (1978) Major industries: engineering and metal products, processed food and beverages, chemicals, basic metals, textiles, and petroleum Crude steel: 12.6 million metric tons produced; 1,280 kg per capita (1978) Electric power: 11,500,000 kW capacity (1978); 51 billion kWh produced (1978), 5, 190 kWh per capita Exports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) $45.0 billion (f.o.b., 1978); iron and steel products, finished or semifinished precious stones, textile products Imports: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union) $48.5 billion (c.i.f., 1978); nonelectrical machinery, motor vehicles, textiles, chemicals, fuels Major trade partners: (Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, 1978) 70% EC (23% West Germany, 18% France, 16% Netherlands, 8% U.K., 4% Italy), 5% U.S. Aid: (1970–78) bilateral economic aid authorized (ODA and OOF), $2,660 million Budget: (1978) revenues, $29.7 billion; expenditures, $32.3 billion; deficit, $2.6 billion Monetary conversion rate: (1978 average) Belgian Franc 31.410=US$1

Fiscal year; calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads; 4,219 km total; 4,003 km standard gage (1.435 m) and government-owned, 2,536 km double track, 1,302 km electrified; 216 km government-owned, electrified meter gage (1.000 m) Highways: 104,612 km total; 1,051 km paved, limited access, divided autoroute; 51,780 km other paved; 51,781 km unpaved Inland waterways: 2,043 km, of which 1,528 km are in regular use by commercial transport Ports: 5 major, 1 minor Pipelines: refined products, 1,115 km; crude, 161 km; natural gas, 3,218 km Civil air. 54 major transport aircraft, including 6 leased in and 3 leased out Airfields: 46 total, 45 usable; 23 with permanent-surface runways; 14 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: excellent domestic and international telephone and telegraph facilities; 3.10 million telephones (31.4 per 100 popl.); 14 AM, 2.1 FM, and 25 TV stations; 5 coaxial submarine cables; 1 Atlantic Ocean INTELSAT station


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GOVERNMENT Legal name: Belize Type: internal self-governing British colony Capital: Belmopan Legal system: English law; constitution came into force in 1964, although country remains a British colony Branches: 18-member elected National Assembly and 8-member Senate (either house may choose its speaker or president, respectively, from outside its elected membership); cabinet; judiciary Government leaders: Premier George C. Price; Governor Peter Donovan McEntee Suffrage; universal adult (probably 21) Elections: Parliamentary elections held November 1979 Political parties and leaders: People's United Party (PUP), George Price; United Democratic Party (UDP), a coalition comprised of the National Independence Party (NIP) led by Philip Goldson, the People's Democratic Union (PDM) led by Dean Lindo, and the Liberal Party (LP) led by Harry Lawrence; Corozal United Front (CUF), Santiago Ricalde; United Black Association for Development (UBAD), Evan X. Hyde Voting strength (National Assembly): PUP 12 seats, UDP 6 seats Communists: negligible Other political or pressure groups: United Workers Union, which is connected with PUP Member of: CARICOM, ISO

ECONOMY GDP: $99 million (1977), $670 per capita; 78% private consumption, 17% public consumption, 36% domestic investment, - 31% net foreign balance (1968) Agriculture: main products—sugarcane, citrus fruits, corn, molasses, rice, beans, bananas, livestock products; net importer of food; caloric intake, 2,500 calories per day per capita Major industries: timber and forest products, food processing, furniture, rum, soap Electric power: 16,000 kW capacity (1977); 32 million kWh produced (1977), 220 kWh per capita Exports: $62 million (f.o.b., 1977); sugar, molasses, clothing, lumber, citrus fruits, fish Imports: $90 million (c.i.f., 1977); vehicles, building materials, petroleum, food, textiles, machinery Major trade partners: exports—U.S. 30%, U.K. 24%, Mexico 22%, Canada 13%; imports—U.S. 34%, U.K. 25%, Jamaica 7% (1970) Aid: economic—bilateral commitments, including Ex-Im (FY70–77), from Western (non-U.S.) countries, $58.3 million; from U.S., $3.0 million; no military aid Monetary conversion rate: 2 Belize dollars=US$1 Fiscal year; calendar year



COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none

Highways: 2,550 km total; 300 km paved, 1,150 km gravel, 950 km improved earth and 300 km unimproved earth

Inland waterways: 800 km river network used by shallow-draft craft

Ports: 4 major (Belize), 4 minor

Civil air: 3 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 37 total, 36 usable; 4 with permanent-surface runways; 1 with runway 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: 5,800 telephones in automatic and

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Ethnic divisions: 99% Africans (42 ethnic groups, most important being Fon, Adja, Yoruba, Bariba), 5,500 Europeans

Religion: 12% Muslim, 8% Christian, 80% animist

Language: French official; Fon and Yoruba most common vernaculars in south, at least 6 major tribal languages in north

Literacy: about 20%

Labor force: 85% of labor force engaged in agriculture, 15% civil service, artisans, and industry

Organized labor: approximately 75% of wage earners, divided among two major and several minor unions

GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Republic of Benin Type: party state, under military rule since 26 October 1972; the military plans to relinquish power to a 336-member National Assembly Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (de facto) Political subdivisions: 6 provinces, 46 districts Legal system: based on French civil law and customary law; legal education generally obtained in France; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 30 November Branches: National Revolutionary Council, Council of Ministers, Central Committee of Party Government leader: Col. Mathieu Kérékou, President, and Chief of State Charged with National Defense Suffrage: universal adult Elections: National Assembly elections were held late 1979

Political parties: People's Revolutionary Party of Benin established in 1975

Communists: sole party espouses Marxism-Leninism

Member of: AFDB, CEAO, EAMA, ECA, ECOWAS, Entente, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, Niger River Commission, OAU, OCAM, U.N.,. UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY GNP; $716.3 million (1977 est.), $220 per capita; 1.5% real growth during 1970-1977 Agriculture: major cash crop is oil palms; peanuts, cotton, coffee, sheanuts, and tobacco also produced commercially, main food crops—corn, cassava, yams, rice, sorghum and millet; livestock, fish Fishing, catch 24,928 metric tons (1977); exports 600 metric tons, imports 8,875 metric tons (1975) Major industries: palm oil and palm kernel oil processing Electric power: 11,000 kW capacity (1977); 55 million kWh produced (1977), 20 kWh per capita Exports: $115.0 million (f.o.b., 1978); palm products (84%); other agricultural products



Imports: $278.6 million (c.i.f., 1978); clothing and other consumer goods, cement, lumber, fuels, foodstuffs, machinery, and transport equipment Major trade partners: France, EC, franc zone; preferential tariffs to EC and franc zone countries Budget: 1978 est.—receipts $186.2 million, expenditures $184.8 million Monetary conversion rate: 225.6 Communaute Financiere Africaine (CFA) francs=US$1 (1977) Fiscal year; calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 579 km, all meter gage (1.00 m) Highways: 3,303 km total; 705 km paved, 2,598 km improved earth Inland waterways: 645 km navigable Ports: 1 major (Cotonou), 1 minor Civil air; 2 major transport aircraft Airfields: 10 total, 10 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 4 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: system of open wire and radio relay; 10,000 telephones (0.3 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations


Military manpower: eligible 15-49, 735,000; 370,000 fit for military service; about 34,000 males and 35,000 females reach military age (18) annually; both sexes liable for military service

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1977, $10.9 million; about 9.7% of central government budget


See reference map ///

LAND 54.4 km”; 8% arable, 60% forested, 21% built on, wasteland, and other, 11% leased for air and naval bases

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 3 nm (fishing 200
Coastline: 103 km

Population: 62,000 (January 1980), average annual
growth rate 1.3% (7-70 to 7-77)
Nationality: noun–Bermudian(s); adjective—Bermudian
Ethnic divisions: approximately 59% black, 4.1% white
Religion: 47.5% Church of England, 38.2% other Protes-
tant, 10.2% Catholic, 4.1% other
Language: English
Literacy: virtually 100%
Labor force: 28,200 employed (September 1978)


Legal name: Bermuda

Type: British colony

Capital: Hamilton

Political subdivisions: 9 parishes

Legal system: English law

Branches: Executive Council (cabinet) appointed by governor, led by government leader; bicameral legislature with an appointed Legislative Council, and a 40-member directly elected House of Assembly; Supreme Court

Government leaders: Governor, Sir Peter Ramsbotham; Premier, J. David Gibbons

Suffrage: universal over age 21

Elections: at least once every 5 years; last general election, May 1976

Political parties and leaders: United Bermuda Party (UBP), J. David Gibbons; Progressive Labor Party (PLP), Lois Browne Evans

Voting strength (1976 elections). UBP 55.5%, PLP 44.4%; House of Assembly seats—UBP 26%, PLP 14%

Communists: negligible

Other political or pressure groups: Bermuda Industrial Union (BIU)

ECONOMY GDP: $505 million (1979 est.), $9,000 per capita; real growth rate 1978/79, est. 2.0% Agriculture: main products—bananas, vegetables, Easter lilies, dairy products, citrus fruits Major industries: tourism, finance Electric power: 86,200 kW capacity (1977); 300 million kWh produced (1977), 5,170 kWh per capita Exports: $46 million (f.o.b., 1977); mostly reexports of drugs and bunker fuel Imports: $186 million (f.o.b., 1977); fuel, foodstuffs, machinery Major trade partners: 45% U.S., 22% U.K., 9% Canada (1976)

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