Page images


[ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Legal name: State of Brunei
Type: British protectorate; constitutional sultanate
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Political subdivisions: 4 administrative districts
Legal system: based on Islamic law; constitution promul-
gated by the Sultan in 1959
Branches: Chief of State is Sultan (advised by appointed
Privy Council) who appoints Executive Council and
Legislative Council
Government leader: Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
Suffrage: universal age 21 and over; 3-tiered system of
indirect elections; popular vote cast for lowest level (district
Elections: last elections—March 1965; further elections
postponed indefinitely
Political parties and leaders: antigovernment, exiled
Brunei People's Party, Chairman A. M. N. Azahari
Communists: information not available

ECONOMY GNP; $460 million (1975 est.), $2,970 per capita Agriculture: main crops—rubber, rice, pepper, must import most food Major industry: crude petroleum, liquefied natural gas Electric power: 84,000 kW capacity (1978); 230 million kWh produced (1978), 1,200 kWh per capita Exports: $1,900 million (f.o.b., 1978); 95% crude petroleum and liquefied natural gas Imports: $261 million (c.i.f., 1978); 25% machinery and transport equipment, 46% manufactured goods, 16% food Major trade partners: exports of crude petroleum and liquefied natural gas to Japan; imports from Japan 30%, U.S. 24%, U.K. 15%, Singapore 9% Budget: (1979) revenues $1 billion, expenditures $507 million, surplus $493 million; 70% defense Monetary conversion rate; 2.2 Brunei dollars=US$1 Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 9.6 km narrow gage (0.610 m) Highways: 1,206 km total; 376 km paved (bituminous treated), 402 km gravel or stone, 428 km unimproved Inland waterways: 209 km; navigable by craft drawing less than 1.2 meters Ports: 2 minor (Bandar Seri Begawan, formerly Brunei, and Kuala Belait) Pipelines: crude oil, 135 km; refined products, 56 km; natural gas, 56 km; crude oil and natural gas, 241 km under construction Civil air: 4 major transport aircraft Airfields: 3 total, 3 usable; 2 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway over 3,660 m; 2 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: service throughout country is adequate for present needs; international service good to adjacent Sabah and Sarawak; radiobroadcast coverage good; 12,388 telephones (6.1 per 100 popl.); Radio Brunei broadcasts from 6 AM/FM stations and 1 TV station


Military manpower: males 15-49, 41,000; 24,000 fit for military service; about 1,900 reach military age (18) annually


111,852 km”; 41% arable, 11% other agricultural, 33%

forested, 15% other
Land boundaries: 1,883 km

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm
Coastline: 354 km

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors]

See reference map /w/

PEOPLE Population: 8,848,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 0.5% (current) Nationality: noun–Bulgarian(s); adjective—Bulgarian Ethnic divisions: 85.3% Bulgarians, 8.5% Turks, 2.6% Gypsies, 2.5% Macedonians, 0.3% Armenians, 0.2% Russians, 0.6% other Religion: regime promotes atheism; religious background of population is 85% Bulgarian Orthodox, 13% Muslim, 0.8% Jewish, 0.7% Roman Catholic, 0.5% Protestant, GregorianArmenian and other Language: Bulgarian; secondary languages closely correspond to ethnic breakdown Literacy: 95% (est.) Labor force: 4.7 million (1979); 27% agriculture, 26% industry, 47% other

Legal name: People's Republic of Bulgaria
Type: Communist state
Capital; Sofia
Political subdivisions: 28 okrugs (districts), including
capital city of Sofia
Legal system: based on civil law system, with Soviet law
influence; new constitution adopted in 1971; judicial review
of legislative acts in the State Council; legal education at
University of Sofia; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday: National Liberation Day, 9 September
Branches: legislative, National Assembly; judiciary, Su-
preme Court
Government leaders: Todor Zhivkov, Chairman, State
Council (President and Chief of State); Stanko Todorov,
Chairman, Council of Ministers (Premier)
Suffrage: universal and compulsory over age 18
Elections: theoretically held every 5 years for National
Assembly; last elections held on 20 May 1976; 99.85% of the
electorate voted
Political parties and leaders: Bulgarian Communist
Party, Todor Zhivkov, First Secretary; Bulgarian National

Agrarian Union, a puppet party, Petur Tanchev, secretary of
Permanent Board
Communists: 817,000 party members (January 1978)
Mass organizations and front groups: Fatherland Front,
Dimitrov Communist Youth League, Central Council of
Trade Unions, National Committee for Defense of Peace,
Union of Fighters Against Fascism and Capitalism, Commit-
tee of Bulgarian Women, All-National Committee for
Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship
Member of CEMA, FAO, IAEA, ICAO, ILO, Interna-
tional Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO. IPU, ITC, ITU,
IWC.—International Wheat Council, U.N., UNESCO, UPU,
WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO; Warsaw Pact, International
Organization of Journalists, International Medical Associ-
ation, International Radio and Television Organization

ECONOMY GNP; $24.8 billion, 1978 (1978 dollars), $2,800 per capita; 1978 real growth rate, 3.9% Agriculture: mainly self-sufficient; main crops—grain, vegetables; caloric intake, 3,000 calories per day per capita (1969/70) Fishing: catch 138,000 metric tons (1977) Major industries: agricultural processing, machinery, textiles and clothing, mining, ore processing, timber Shortages: some raw materials, metal products, meat and dairy products; fodder Crude steel: 2.5 million metric tons produced (1978), 280 kg per capita Electric power: 7,760,000 kW capacity (1978); 31.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 3,550 kWh per capita Exports: $7.4 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 46% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 15% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, and other industrial material; 2% agricultural raw materials; 29% foodstuffs, raw materials for food industry, and animals; 10% industrial consumer goods (1977) Imports: $7.5 billion (f.o.b., 1978); 39% machinery, equipment, and transportation equipment; 45% fuels, minerals, raw materials, metals, other materials; 7% agricultural raw materials; 4% foodstuffs and animals; 5% industrial consumer goods (1977) Major trade partners: $14,913 million in 1978; 20% with non-Communist countries, 57% with U.S.S.R., 23% with other Communist countries Monetary conversion rate: 0.90 leva - US$1 (1978) Fiscal year; calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year 1 July-30 June NOTE: Foreign trade figures were converted at the 1977 rate of 0.911 leva - US$1

Railroads: 4,415 km total; about 4,170 km standard gage

(1.435 m), 245 km narrow gage; 295 km double track; 1,446

km electrified; government-owned (1977)



[merged small][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small][merged small][merged small]

Labor force: 12.2 million (1976); 67% agriculture, 9% industry, 20% services, commerce, and transportation

Organized labor: no figure available; old labor organizations have been disbanded, and government is forming one central labor organization

Legal name: Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma
Type: republic under 1974 constitution
Capital: Rangoon
Political subdivisions: seven divisions and seven constitu-
ent states; subdivided into townships, villages, and wards
Legal system: People's Justice system and People's Courts
instituted under 1974 constitution; legal education at
Universities of Rangoon and Mandalay; has not accepted
compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
National holiday: Independence Day, 4 January
Branches: State Council rules through a Council of
Ministers; People's Assembly has legislative power
Government leader: Chairman of State Council and
President, Gen. U. Ne Win
Suffrage: universal over age 18
Elections: People's Assembly and local People's Councils
elected in 1978
Political parties and leaders: government-sponsored
Burma Socialist Program Party only legal party
Communists: estimated 5,000-8,000
Other political or pressure groups: People's Patriotic
Party; Kachin Independence Army; Karen Nationalist
Union, several Shan factions
Member of: ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, CATT,

ECONOMY GDP: $4.4 billion (FY77/78, in current prices), $140 per capita; real growth rate 6.5% (1977/78); 2.5% over past decade Agriculture: accounts for nearly 70% of total employment and about 27% of GDP; main crops—paddy, sugarcane, corn, peanuts; almost 100% self-sufficient; most rice grown in deltaic land Fishing: catch 518,700 metric tons (1977) Major industries: agricultural processing; textiles and footwear; wood and wood products; petroleum refining Electric power: 450,000 kW capacity (1978); 890 million kWh produced (1978), 30 kWh per capita Exports: $243 million (f.o.b., 1978); rice, teak Imports: $309 million (c.i.f., 1978); machinery and transportation equipment, textiles, other manufactured goods Major trade partners: exports—Singapore, Western Europe, China, U.K., Japan; imports—Japan, Western Europe, Singapore, U.K.



Budget. (FY78) $3.1 billion revenues; $2.9 billion expenditures; $200 million deficit; 30% military, 70% civilian

Monetary conversion rate: 6.8651 kyat=US$1 (1978)

Fiscal year: 1 April-31 March

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 3,285 km total; 3,172 km meter gage (1.00 m), 113 km narrow-gage industrial lines; 328 km double track; government-owned Highways: 27,000 km total; 3,200 km bituminous, 17,700 km improved earth, gravel, 6,100 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: 12,800 km; 3,200 km navigable by large commercial vessels Ports: 4 major, 6 minor Civil air: about 20 major transport aircraft Airfields: 81 total, 79 usable; 24 with permanent-surface runways; 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 39 with runways 1,220-2,439 m Telecommunications: provide minimum requirements for local and intercity service; international service is good; radiobroadcast coverage is limited to the most populous areas; 33,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 1 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations; one ground satellite station


Military manpower: 2ligible 15-49, 7,598,000; 4,054,000 fit for military service; about 338,000 males and 333,000 females reach military age (18) annually; both are liable for military service

Military budget: (announced) for fiscal year ending 31 March 1978; $148.9 million, 5% of central government budget


(See reference map V1/

LAND 28,490 km”; about 37% arable (about 66% cultivated), 23%

pasture, 10% scrub and forest, 30% other Land boundaries: 974 km

PEOPLE Population: 4,366,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.4% (current) Nationality: noun–Burundian(s); adjective—Burundi Ethnic divisions: Africans—85% Hutu (Bantu), 14% Tutsi (Hamitic), 1% Twa (Pigmy); other Africans include perhaps 10,000 Zairians (approximately 40,000 were recently repatriated), and 40,000 Rwandans; non-Africans include about 3,000 Europeans and 1,000 South Asians Religion: about 60% Christian (53% Catholic, 7% Protestant); rest mostly animist plus perhaps 2% Muslims Language: Kirundi and French (official); Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area) Literacy: about 15% in Kirundi, 3% in French, no serviceable estimate for Kiswahili Labor force: about 2 million (1976 est.) Organized labor: sole group is the Union of Burundi Workers (UTB); by charter, membership is extended to all Burundi workers (informally); figures denoting “active membership" have been unobtainable

GOVERNMENT Legal name: Republic of Burundi Type: republic; military government overthrown by military coup, November 1976; constitution abolished Capital: Bujumbura Political subdivisions: 8 provinces, subdivided into 18 arrondissements and 78 communes; Bujumbura city (population est. 175,000) has status equal to a province Legal system: based on German and French civil codes and customary law, has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July Branches: Supreme Revolutionary Council is governing body Government leader: Col. Jean-Baptiste Bagaza, Chairman of Supreme Revolutionary Council, established November 1976 Suffrage: universal Elections: last legislative election May 1965; legislature dissolved in 1966 Political parties and leaders: National Party of Unity and Progress (UPRONA), a Tutsi led party, declared sole legitimate party in 1966 Communists: no Communist party; resumed diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China in October 1971 following a six-year suspension; U.S.S.R., North Korea, and Romania also have diplomatic missions in Burundi Member of: AFDB, EAMA, ECA, FAO, G-77, GATT, IBRD, ICAO, ICO, IDA, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, OAU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO

ECONOMY GNP; about $537.9 million (1977), $140 per capita; 2% real growth (1970–74); real GDP growth in 1976, 7.8% Agriculture: major cash crops—coffee, cotton, tea; main food crops—manioc, yams, corn, sorghums, bananas, haricot beans; marginally self-sufficient Industries: light consumer goods such as beverages, blankets, shoes, soap, assembly of imports Electric power: 7,500 kW capacity (diesel generator 1977); 25 million kWh produced (1977), 6 kWh per capita Exports: $126.7 million (f.o.b., 1977); coffee (90%), tea, cotton, hides, skins Imports: $75.9 million (c.i.f., 1977); textiles, foodstuffs, transport equipment, petroleum products Major trade partners: U.S., EEC countries Budget: FY77—revenue $103.1 million, expenditure $81.9 million Monetary conversion rate: 90 Burundi francs=US$1 (official) Fiscal year; calendar year



COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: none Highways: 7,800 km total; 300 km bituminous, 2,500 km crushed stone, gravel, or laterite, and 3,000 km improved earth, and 2,000 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: Lake Tanganyika navigable for lake steamers and barges, 1 lake port Civil air: 1 major transport aircraft Airfields: 12 total, 12 usable; 1 with permanent-surface runway; 1 with runway 2,440-3,659 m Telecommunications: sparse system of wire and lowcapacity radio-relax links; telegraph primary means of communication; about 6,000 telephones (0.1 per 100 popl.); 2 AM, 1 FM, and no TV stations

DEFENSE FORCES Military manpower: males 15-49, 966,000; 500,000 fit for military service; 46,000 reach military age (16) annually Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $22.4 million; about 17.8% of central government budget


LAND 475,400 km”; 4% cultivated, 18% grazing, 13% fallow, 50% forest, 15% other Land boundaries: 4,554 km

Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 50 nm
Coastline: 402 km

PEOPLE Population: 8,250,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.0% (current) Nationality: noun—Cameroonian(s); adjective—Cameroonian

[subsumed][merged small][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]

GOVERNMENT Legal name: United Republic of Cameroon Type: unitary republic; one-party presidential regime Capital; Yaoundé Political subdivisions: 7 provinces divided into 39 departments Legal system: based on French civil law system, with common law influence; new unitary constitution adopted 1972; judicial review in Supreme Court, when a question of constitutionality is referred to it by the President of the Republic; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: National Day, 20 May Branches: executive (President), legislative (National Assembly), and judicial (Supreme Court) Government leader: President Ahmadou Ahidjo Suffrage: universal over age 21 Elections: parliamentary elections held 28 May 1978; presidential elections scheduled for May 1980 Political parties and leaders: single party, Cameroonian National Union (UNC), instituted in 1966, President Ahmadou Ahidjo Communists: no Communist Party or significant number of sympathizers

« PreviousContinue »