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Dates of Information: The information in this edition of the Factbook is current as of mid- to late-October 1979 except as follows:

• Population estimates have been projected to 1 January 1980,

• Military manpower estimates are as of 1 January 1979, except for.numbers of males reaching military age, which are projected averages for the five-year period 1979-83.

Explanatory Notes:

land Utilization: Most of the land utilization percentages are rough estimates. Figures for "arable” land in some cases reflect the area under cultivation rather than the total cutivable area.

Maritime Zones: Fishing and economic zones claimed by coastal states are included only when they differ from territorial sea limits. Maritime claims do not necessarily represnt the position of the United States Government.

GNP vs. GDP: For some countries GDP, rather than GNP, is shown. GDP is the total market value of all goods and services produced within the domestic borders of a country over a particular time period, normally a year. GNP equals GDP plus the income accruing to domestic residents arising from investment abroad less income earned in the domestic market accruing to foreigners abroad.

Money: All money figures are in U.S. dollars unless otherwise indicated.

Fiscal Year: The abbreviation FY stands for U.S. fiscal year; all years are calendar years unless otherwise indicated.

Some of the countries and governments included in this publication are not fully independent and others are not officially recognized by the United States Government.

AFGHANISTAN

AFGHANISTAN

See reference map VII/

LAND 647,500 km”; 22% arable (12% cultivated, 10% pasture), 75% desert, waste, or urban, 3% forested

Land boundaries: 5,510 km

PEOPLE Population: 14,866,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current) Nationality: noun–Afghan(s); adjective—Afghan Ethnic divisions: 50% Pushtuns, 25% Tajiks, 9% Uzbeks, 9% Hazaras; minor ethnic groups include Chahar Aimaks, Turkmen, Kizelbashes, and others Religion: 87% Sunni Muslim, 12% Shia Muslim, 1% other Language: 50% Pushtu, 35% Afghan Persian (Dari), 11% Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen), 10% thirty minor languages (primarily Baluchi and Pashai); much bilingualism Literacy; about 10% Labor force: about 5.88 million (FY78 est.); 75%-80% agriculture and animal husbandry, 20%-25% commerce, small industry, services; massive shortage of skilled labor

Organized labor: none

GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic Republic of Afghanistan Type: Communist regime backed by multidivisional Soviet force Capital: Kabul Political subdivisions: 26 provinces with centrally appointed governors Legal system: not established; legal education at University of Kabul; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Branches: leaders of the Communist People's Democratic Party (PDPA) answering to Moscow, head the government; government structure still undefined

Government leaders: President of Republic, President of the Revolutionary Council, Prime Minister, and head of the PDPA, Babrak Karmal Suffrage; universal from age 18 Political parties and leaders: The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan is the sole legal political party Communists: the Parcham faction of the PDPA was installed on 27 December 1979; the deposed Khalqi faction essentially has been purged from the regime; the SholayeJaweid is a much smaller pro-Peking group Other political or pressure groups: the military and other branches of internal security are being rebuilt by the Soviets; tribal rebellion continues throughout the country; widespread opposition on religious grounds and anti-Soviet sentiment Member of ADB, Colombo Plan, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, IFC, ILO, IMF, ITU, NAM, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WMO, WTO, WSG

ECONOMY GNP; $2.9 billion (FY79 est.), $210 per capita; real growth rate about 4.0% (1970-79) Agriculture: agriculture and animal husbandry account for over 50% of GNP and occupy nearly 85% of the labor force; main crops—wheat and other grains, cotton, fruits, nuts; largely self-sufficient; food shortages—wheat, sugar, tea Major industries: cottage industries, food processing, textiles, cement, coal mining Electric power: 360,000 kW capacity (1978); 756 million kWh produced (1978), 50 kWh per capita Exports: $320 million (f.o.b., FY79); fresh and dried fruits, natural gas, karakul skins, carpets, hides, wool and Cotton Imports: $377 million (f.o.b., FY79); non-metallic minerals, sugar, tires and tubes, textiles, tea, used clothing, tobacco, transportation, and wheat Major trade partners: exports—U.S.S.R., India, U.K., Pakistan, West Germany, Switzerland, U.S.; imports—Japan, U.S.S.R., India, West Germany, U.K., U.S. Budget: current expenditures $380 million, capital expenditures $370 million for FY80 est. Monetary conversion rate: 47 Afghanis-US$1 (official, mid-1979) Fiscal year: 21 March-20 March

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 0.6 km (single track) 1.524-meter gage, government-owned spur of Soviet line Highways: 21,115 km total (1977); 2,960 km paved, 3,910 km gravel, 8,735 km improved earth, and 5,780 km unimproved earth Inland waterways: total navigability 1,200 km; steamers use Amu Darya

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AFGHANISTAN/ALBANIA

Ports: 3 minor river ports; largest Shen Khan

Civil air: 6 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 37 total, 36 usable; 9 with permanent-surface runways; 7 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 11 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

Telecommunications: limited telephone, telegraph, and radiobroadcast services; television to be introduced by 1980; 35,000 telephones (0.2 per 100 popl.); 5 AM, no FM, no TV stations

DEFENSE FORCES

Military manpower: males 15-49, about 3.4 million; 1.8 million fit for military service; about 153,000 reach military age (22) annually

4 Supply, dependent on foreign sources, almost exclusively

the U.S.S.R.

Military budget; estimated expenditures for fiscal year ending 31 March 1979, about $63.8 million; approximately 12% of central government budget

ALBANIA

Mediterranean Sea

(See reference map /V/

LAND 28,749 km”; 19% arable, 24% other agricultural, 43% forested, 14% other

Land boundaries: 716 km

WATER
Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 15 nm.
Coastline: 418 km (including Sazan Island)

PEOPLE

Population: 2,655,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 2.2% (current)

Nationality; noun—Albanian(s); adjective—Albanian

Ethnic divisions: 96% Albanian, remaining 4% are Greeks, Vlachs, Gypsies, and Bulgarians

Religion: 70% Muslim, 20% Albanian Orthodox, 10% Roman Catholic; observances prohibited; Albania claims to be the world's first atheist state

Language: Albanian, Greek

Literacy: about 70%; no reliable current statistics available, but probably greatly improved

Labor force: 911,000 (1969); 60.5% agriculture, 17.9% industry, 21.6% other nonagricultural

GOVERNMENT Legal name: People's Socialist Republic of Albania Type: Communist state Capital: Tiranë Political subdivisions: 27 rethet (districts), including capital Legal system: based on constitution adopted in 1976; judicial review of legislative acts only in the Presidium of the People's Assembly, which is not a true court; legal education at State University of Tirane; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: Liberation Day, 29 November Branches: People's Assembly, Council of Ministers, judiciary Government leaders: Premier and Chairman of Council of Ministers, Mehmet Shehu; Chairman, Presidium of the People's Assembly, Haxhi Lleshi (Chief of State) Suffrage; universal and compulsory over age 18 Elections: national elections theoretically held every 4 years; last elections 6 November 1978; 99.99% of electorate voted Political parties and leaders: Albanian Workers Party only; First Secretary, Enver Hoxha Communists: 101,500 party members (November 1976) Member of CEMA, IAEA, IPU, ITU, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WMO, has not participated in CEMA since rift with U.S.S.R. in 1961; officially withdrew from Warsaw Pact 13 September 1968

ECONOMY GNP; $1.2 billion in 1972 (at 1970 prices), $520 per capita Agriculture: food deficit area; main crops—corn, wheat, tobacco, sugar beets, cotton; food shortages—wheat; caloric intake, 2,100 calories per day per capita (1961/62) Major industries: agricultural processing, textiles and clothing, lumber, and extractive industries Shortages: spare parts, machinery and equipment, wheat Electric power: 750,000 kW capacity (1978); 2.2 billion kWh produced (1978), 850 kWh per capita Exports: $150.5 million (1978 est.); 1964 trade—55% minerals, metals, fuels; 23% foodstuffs (including cigarettes); 17% agricultural materials (except foods); 5% consumer

goods

[graphic]

ALBANIA/ALGERIA

Imports: $173.4 million (1978); 1964 trade—50% machinery, equipment, and spare parts; 16% minerals, metals, fuels, construction materials; 16% foodstuffs; 7% consumer goods; 7% fertilizers, other chemicals, rubber; 4% agricultural materials (except foodstuffs) Aid: Albania claims to have drawn $1.3 billion in Chinese economic aid since 1960 Monetary conversion rate: 5 leks=US$1 (commercial); 12.5 leks=US$1 (noncommercial) Fiscal year: same as calendar year; economic data reported for calendar years except for caloric intake, which is reported for consumption year 1 July-30 June

COMMUNICATIONS Railroads: 277 km standard gage (1.435 m), single track, government-owned (1975) Highways: 4,989 km total; 1,287 km paved, 1,609 km crushed stone and/or gravel, 2,093 km improved or unimproved earth (1975) Inland waterways: 43 km plus Albanian sections of Lake Scutari, Lake Ohrid, and Lake Prespa (1979) Freight carried: rail—2.8 million metric tons, 180 million metric ton/km (1971); highways—39 million metric tons, 900 million metric ton/km (1971) Ports: 1 major (Durres), 3 minor (1979) Pipelines: crude oil, 117 km; refined products, 65 km; natural gas, 64 km Civil air: no civil airline

DEFENSE FORCES
Military budget announced: for fiscal year ending 31
December 1979, 835 million leks; 10.7% of total budget

ALGERIA

(See reference map V/

LAND 2,460,500 km”; 3% cultivated, 16% pasture and meadows,

1% forested, 80% desert, waste, or urban Land boundaries: 6,260 km

WATER
Limits of territorial waters (claimed): 12 nm
Coastline: 1,183 km

PEOPLE Population: 18,542,000 (January 1980), average annual growth rate 3.1% (current) Nationality: noun—Algerian(s); adjective—Algerian Ethnic divisions: 99% Arab-Berbers, less than 1% Europeans Religion: 99% Muslim, 1% Christian and Hebrew Language: Arabic (official), French, Berber dialects Literacy; 25% (5% Arabic, 9% French, 11% both) Labor force: 4.0 million; 50% agriculture, 20% industry, 30% other (military, police, civil service, transportation workers, teachers, merchants, construction workers); at least 20% of urban labor unemployed Organized labor; 25% of labor force claimed; General Union of Algerian Workers (UGTA) is the only labor organization and is subordinate to the National Liberation Front

GOVERNMENT Legal name: Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria Type: republic Capital: Algiers Political subdivisions: 31 provinces) Legal system: based on French and Islamic law, with socialist principles; new constitution adopted by referendum November 1976; judicial review of legislative acts in ad hoc Constitutional Council composed of various public officials, including several Supreme Court justices; Supreme Court divided into 4 chambers; legal education at Universities of Algiers, Oran, and Constantine; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: 1 November Branches: executive dominant; unicameral legislature reconvened in March 1977; judiciary Government leader: President, Col. Chadli Bendjedid, elected 7 February 1979 as successor to deceased President Boumediene Suffrage; universal over age 19 Elections (latest); presidential 7 February 1979; departmental assemblies 2 June 1974; local assemblies 30 March 1975; legislative elections held 25 February 1977 Political parties and leaders: National Liberation Front (FLN), Secretary General Chadli Bendjedid; party coordinator, Mohamed Yahiaoui Communists: 400 (est.); Communist Party illegal (banned 1962) Member of: AFDB, AIOEC , Arab League, ASSIMER, FAO, G-77, GATT (de facto), IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, IDA, ILO, International Lead and Zinc Study Group, IMCO, IMF, IOOC, ITU, NAM, OAPEC, OAU, OPEC, U.N., UNESCO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO

Wilayas (departments or ECONOMY GDP: $24.6 billion (1978 provisional), $1,390 per capita; in real terms, 8.8% growth in 1977 Agriculture: main crops—wheat, barley, grapes, citrus fruits Major industries: petroleum, light industries, natural gas, mining, petrochemical, electrical, and automotive plants under construction Electric power: 1,700,000 kW capacity (1978); 4.5 billion kWh produced (1978), 250 kWh per capita Exports: $6.3 billion (f.o.b., 1978 provisional); 90% hydrocarbons, also wine, citrus fruit, iron ore, vegetables; U.S. took 56.2% of Algerian crude oil, supplanting France as Algeria's leading trade partner Imports: $8.1 billion (c.i.f., 1978); major items—capital goods 35%, semi-finished goods 38%, foodstuffs 25%; from France 23%, U.S. 9%

[graphic]

ALGERIA/ANDORRA

Monetary conversion rate: 1 DA=US$0.24 Fiscal year: calendar year

COMMUNICATIONS

Railroads: 3,950 km total; 2,690 km standard gage (1.435 m), 1,140 km 1.055-meter gage, 120 km meter gage (1.000 m); 302 km electrified; 193 km double track

Highways: 78,410 km total; 45,070 km concrete or bituminous, 33,340 km gravel, crushed stone, unimproved earth

Ports: 9 major, 8 minor

Pipelines: crude oil, 3,983 km; refined products, 298 km; natural gas, 2,398 km

Civil air: 30 major transport aircraft

Airfields: 187 total, 175 usable; 56 with permanent-surface runways; 22 with runways 2,440-3,659 m, 88 with runways 1,220-2,439 m

DEFENSE FORCES

Military manpower: males 15-49, 3,720,000; 2,224,000 fit for military service; average number reaching military age (19) annually 193,000

Military budget: for fiscal year ending 31 December 1979, $600 million; 6% of central government budget

ANDORRA

LAND 466 km.”

Land boundaries: 105 km

PEOPLE
Population: 29,000 (official estimate for 1 July 1976)
Nationality: noun—Andorran(s); adjective—Andorran

Ethnic divisions: Catalan stock; 30% Andorrans, 61% Spanish, 6% French, 3% other

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GOVERNMENT Legal name: Andorra; Valls d'Andorra (Catalan) Type: unique coprincipality under formal sovereignty of President of France and Spanish Bishop of Seo de Urgel, who are represented locally by officials called verguers Capital: Andorra Political subdivisions: 6 districts—Andorra la Vella, Saint Julia de Loria, Encamp, Canillo, La Massana, and Ordino Legal system: based on French and Spanish civil codes; Plan of Reform adopted 1866 serves as constitution; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction Branches: legislature (General Council) consisting of 24 members with one-half elected every 2 years for 4-year term; executive—syndic (manager) and a deputy sub-syndic chosen by General Council for 3-year terms; judiciary chosen by coprinces who appoint 2 civil judges, a judge of appeals, and 2 Batles (court prosecutors); final appeal to the Supreme Court of Andorra at Perpignan, France, or to the Ecclesiastical Court of the Bishop of Seo de Urgel, Spain Suffrage: males of 21 or over who are third generation Andorrans vote for General Council members; same right granted to women in April 1970 Elections: half of General Council chosen every 2 years, last election December 1979 Political parties and leaders: traditionally no political parties but only partisans for particular independent candidates for the General Council, on the basis of competence, personality and orientation toward Spain or France; various small pressure groups developed in 1972, first formal political party—Andorran Democratic Association—formed in November 1976 Communists: negligible Member of: UNESCO

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