Wolf (Google eBook)
Throughout the continents of Eurasia and North American primitive man evolved in association with wolves. Wolves competed with him as a hunter, and raided his flocks and herds. Inevitably, folklore became rich in tales of this powerful, resourceful creature.
Europeans reached North American with their attitudes already formed. The wilderness pressed in upon their tiny settlements in constant threat and all energies were devoted to destroying it and turning its inexhaustible resources to use. Over vast areas of the continent the wolf went down with the wilderness before the unprecedented effectiveness of our technological attack on the ecology of a continent.
Today, however, there is a great tide of concern over the consequences of our assault on the wild lands and wild creatures on the continent, and more and more biologists are devoting their knowledge and energy to searching studies of our land and its native biota.
The wolf has been the subject of detailed study by a number of ecologists on this continent who make use of all the research devices now available. Much of our knowledge is very recent, is increasing rapidly, and has resulted from the work of a mere handful of keen, resourceful, and courageous students of wolf biology. This, the first book to attempt a complete account of the biology of the wolf, draws from years of field research and upon the rich literature from two continents.
--From the foreword by Ian McTaggert Cowan
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CHAPTER VIII SELECTION OF PREY
CHAPTER IX EFFECTS OF WOLF PREDATION
CHAPTER X RELATIONS WITH NONPREY SPECIES
CHAPTER XI FACTORS HARMFUL TO THE WOLF
CHAPTER XII FUTURE OF THE WOLF
APPENDIX A SUBSPECIES OF WOLVES
APPENDIX B MANNER OF CALCULATINGTHE APPARENT SURVIVAL RATES GIVEN IN TABLE 6
APPENDIX C SCIENTIFIC NAMESOF ORGANISMS REFERRED TO INTEXT
CHAPTER IV REPRODUCTIONAND FAMILY LIFE
CHAPTER V THE WOLFS WANDERINGS
CHAPTER VI FOOD HABITS
CHAPTER VII HUNTING HABITS
Alaska Algonquin Park alpha male animal’s appears attack average Banfield behavior bison bounty breeding calf calves Canada Canis captive carcass caribou Chapter chase Cowan coyote Crisler Dall sheep David Mech deer density dogs dominant evidence factors feeding feet female figures Fuller herd howling human hundred yards hunting individuals Isle Royale Joslin killed by wolves lake litter mammals mating McKinley Park meat Mech Minnesota moose mortality Mount McKinley Murie National Park North America Northwest Territories number of wolves numbers observations occurred Ontario pack members pack of fifteen period Pimlott pounds probably Pulliainen range red wolf remains reported scent Schenkel seen sex ratio sheep snow social species square miles Stenlund subspecies summer survival tail tracks trail tundra usually winter wolf numbers wolf pack wolf population wolf predation wolf pups wolf’s wolves killed yearlings young