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Median Emphasis.—This form of Emphasis is more dignified than the last, and is consequently well suited to the expression of lofty and sublime sentiments, and to the language of veneration and prayer. It can be given only on syllables of indefinite quantity. 1. Wonder not, sovereign Mistress, if perhaps

Thou canst, who art sole wonder! 2. Oh swear not by the moon, the inconstant moon,

That monthly chan-ges in her circling orb. 3. Hail, ho-ly light, offspring of Heaven first-born!

Or of the Eternal co-eternal beam

May I express thee unblamed? 4. Spare thou those, O God, who confess their faults.-Res-tore

thou them that are penitent.

Vanishing Emphasis.—This form of Emphasis usually expresses impatience, angry complaint, or some other modification of ill humor. It is especially adapted to hasty interrogation, and may be given on any but the immutable syllables.—The tent scene between Brutus and Cassius furnishes numerous examples of this. 1. Brutus. Let me tell you, Cassius, you your-self

Are much condemned to have an itching palm;
To sell and mart your offices for gold

To undeseryers.
Cassius. I an itching palm?

You know that you are Bru-tus that speak this,

Or, by the Gods, this speech were else your last.
Brutus. The name of Cassius honors this corruption,

And chas-tisement doth therefore hide his head.

2. Brutus. Must I give way and room to your rash choler ?

Shall I be frighted when a mad-man stares ?
Cassius. O ye gods! ye gods! must I endure all this?

3. Hamlet. Saw who?

Horatio. My lord, the King, your father.
Hamlet. The King, my fa-ther?

Compound Emphasis.— This consists in an application of the compound stress to a syllable of indefinite time; ana is the most forcible form of emphatic stress. It is particularly appropriate to the forcible expression of earnest or angry interrogation.

1. Arm, warriors, arm for fight.
2. Dost thou come here to whine?

To outface me by leaping in her grave ?

III. EMPHASIS OF PITCH. The melody of unimpassioned discourse consists of a succession of syllables, whose concrete movement is only through a single tone, the discrete movement from syllable to syllable being also through the same interval. This is called the Diatonic melody. Any deviation from this movement, like a slide or a skip through a third, fifth, or octave, on any syllable, would most obviously produce such a distinction as to answer the purpose of emphasis, and that whether this movement were upward or downward, whether concrete or discrete. As the rising and falling movements of the voice have different expressions, they will be treated separately.

1. EMPHASIS OF THE RISING INTERVALS. The appropriate expression of the rising intervals is interrogation. This subject has been introduced to the learner in Sec. V, of Chap. I; and will be further discussed under the head of Expression. But beside the interrogative expression, the rising movements both of a third and a fifth may be used for purposes of emphasis merely; while that of the octave probably always combines emphasis with the thorough interrogative intonation. The slide through the wider intervals should be struck on a line below the current melody.

EXAMPLES. Emphasis of the Rising Concrete Third.—This is the emphasis of simple interrogation; and is also employed to express the lower shades of emphatic distinction, as they occur in the diatonic melody. 1. Gavest thou the goodly wings to the pea-cocks ? or wings and

feathers unto the 08-trich? 2. I love not man the less, but nature more,

From these our interviews. 3. Yet Bru-tus says he was ambitious.

Emphasis of the Rising Discrete Third. --This has the same expression with the concrete rise of a third, and is rarely used but on immutable syllables.

1. Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook ?
2. Which, if not vic-tory, is yet revenge.
3. Why then their loss deplore, that are not lost!
4. Why should that name be sounded more than yours ?

Emphasis of the Rising Concrete and Discrete Fifth.The examples which illustrate the two preceding forms may

be used for illustration here, by adding to the energy with which they are pronounced. The intervals of the fifth are of more rare occurrence than the third. The following additional examples must suffice.

Concrete. 1. Wouldst thou be King ?

2. Tears like the rain-drops may fall without measure,

But rapture and beauty they cannot recall. 3. Time writes no wrinkle on thine azure brow. 4. I am at liberty, like every other man, to use my own language. 5. You are not left alone to climb the arduous ascent-God is

with you; who never suffers the spirit which rests on him

to fail, nor the man who seeks his favor to seek it in vain. 6. What though the field be lost? all is not lost.

Note 1.-When the emphatic rise, as in this last example, occurs on the last syllable or word of a declarative sentence, it must of course annul the cadence.-So also, if it occurs near the close.

NOTE 2.—This emphatic rise, and the consequent suspension of the cadence, may occur in the Indirect Question; as, What is that? Who do you say that is?—These cases however are too rare to unsettle the general rules of Interrogative Intonation laid down in the first chapter.

1. Let me have men about me that are fat,

Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights. 2.

Or when we lay
Chained on the burning lake! That sure was worse.

Emphasis of the Rising Concrete and Discrete Octave. This is the most earnest expression of interrogative intonation; and is never used in grave discourse. Its appropriate expression is that of sneer or raillery.-The rise is concrete when it occurs on long syllables; when on short or immutable syllables, it is formed by a change of radical pitch.

Concrete. 1.

Moneys is your suit.
What should I say to you? Should I not say?
Hath a dog money? Is it possible

A cur can lend three thousand ducats ? 2. A King's son? You Prince of Wales ? Discrete.

Zounds, show me what thoul't do: Woul't weep? woul't fight ? woul't fast? woul't tear thyself?

2. EMPHASIS OF THE DOWNWARD INTERVALS. As the rising movements of the voice express doubt and uncertainty, so the downward intervals are the appropriate symbol of surprise and positiveness. When the accented syllable is susceptible of being protracted, the movement is concrete; and in this case the radical point of the slide is struck on a line above that of the current melody, the vanish descending below it, when the force of the emphasis is considerable.—On immutable syllables, the fall can be made only by a discrete skip of the voice.

The fall for the purpose of emphasis, may be through a third, a fifth or an octave, according to the degree of positiveness or surprise contemplated by the emphasis.

EXAMPLES Emphasis of the Downward Concrete Third. 1. Does beauteous Tamar view, in this clear fount,

Herself, or heaven? 2. You are the queen, your husband's brother's wife. 3. The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,

But in our-selves, that we are underlings. 4. The curfew tolls, the knell of parting day. Emphasis of the Downward Concrete Fifth.1. Seems, madam! nay, it is; I know not seems. 2. Before the sun, before the heavens, thou wert. 3.

Upon the watery plain The wrecks are all thy deed. 4. The man who is in the daily habit of using ardent spirits, if

he does not become a drunkard, is in danger of losing his

health and character. NOTE.—The sense itself, as well as the force of the expression, often depends, as in the last example, on the giving of the down ward emphatic slide.

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