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2. I am found, said virtue, in the vale, and illuminate the mountains. I cheer the cottager at his toil, and inspire the sage at his meditation : I mingle in the crowd of cities, and bless the hermit in his cell.
3. Dryden knew more of man in his general nature, and Pope in his local manners. The notions of Dryden were formed by comprehensive speculation, those of Pope by minute attention. There is more dignity in the knowledge of Dryden, and more certainty in that of Pope.
4. Never before were so many opposing interests, passions, and principles, committed to such a decision. On one side an attachment to the ancient order of things, on the other a passionate desire of change; a wish in some to perpetuate, in others to destroy every thing; every abuse sacred in the eyes of the former, every foundation attempted to be demolished by the latter ; a jealousy of power shrinking from the slightest innovation, pretensions to freedom pushed to madness and anarchy; superstition in all its dotage, impiety in all its fury ;-whatever, in short, could be found most discordant in the principles, or violent in the passions of men, were the fearful ingredients which the hands of Divine justice selected to mingle in this furnace of wrath.
5. Therefore, the world knoweth us not, because it knew him not. 6. Custom is the plague of wise men, and the idol of fools.
7. Cæsar was celebrated for his great generosity, Cato for his unsullied integrity.
Note.—When the members are long, and especially if they express a complete sense, as in the last example,—both members are often terminated with the falling inflection; nor do I consider that objectionable. In that case, however, the antithesis may be presented on the leading words of the members; as, in this example, on • Cæsar' and Cato. The following examples may also illustrate the same point:"The power of delicacy is chiefly seen in discerning the true merit of a work; the power of correctness, in rejecting false pretensions to merit.”- _ The Spartan (Lycurgus] aimed to form a community of high-minded warriors; the Athenian (Solon) sought rather a community of cultivated scholars.”
Rule III.- When a sentence consists of two corresponding members, the one negative, the other affirmative, the negative member takes the Rising Slide ;-Except when overruled by the absolute Emphatic Stress.
When the negative member comes first, it is obvious that this rule is entirely coincident with Rule II, as in the following examples :-"I did not say a better soldier, but an elder.”_" These things I say now, not to insult one who is fallen, but to render more secure those who stand.”
“He came not with the aspect of vengeance, but of mercy.”
The following examples, in which the negative member occurs last, will show that the principle is of universal application.
1. The duty of a soldier is to obey, not to direct his general. 2. It was an enemy, not a friend, who did this. 3. I came to bury Cæsar, not to praise him. 4. You were paid to fight against Alexander, not to rail at him.
Examples of exception to Rule III, founded on the absolute emphasis :
1. If we have no regard for our CHARACTER, we ought to have some regard for our interest.
2. If you will not make the experiment for your own satisfaction, you ought to make it for the satisfaction of your friends.
3. The man who is in the daily use of ardent spirit, if he does not become a DRUNKARD, is in danger of losing his health and character.
4. If we have no regard for religion in Youth, we ought to have some respect for it in age.
Note 1.-When the negative is implied though not expressed, the negative member still takes the Rising Slide: this,—“A countenance more in sorrow than in anger.” Here the inflections are as though it were read,—"A countenance in sorrow, not in anger." The following examples will further illustrate this principle :-" He is more knave than fool.”—“Napoleon merits praise, rather than dispraise. —“Cæsar deserves blame, instead of fame." NOTE 2.-When only the negative part of such sentence is exEXAMPLES.
pressed, if the antithetic part is plainly obvious, it may take the Rising Slide. Examples :
True politeness is not a mere compliance with arbitrary custom ; [it is the expression of a refined benevolence.] God is not the author of sin, [but of moral excellence.]
To these rules may be added two others for the Falling Slide; and they are given here, because, like the foregoing, they seem to depend sufficiently on the structure of the sentence, to receive some illustration from that principle.
RULE IV. A succession of emphatic particulars takes the Emphasis of the Falling Slide.
1. Absalom's beauty, Jonathan's love, David's valor, Solomon's wisdom, the patience of Job, the prudence of Augustus, the eloquence of Cicero, the innocence of wisdom, and the intelligence of All,-though faintly amiable in the creature, are found in immense perfection in the Creator.
2. The soul can exert herself in many different ways of action. She can understand, will, imagine,—see and hear,— love and discourse.,—and apply herself to many other like exercises of different kinds and natures.
3. His hopes, his happiness, his very life, hung upon the next word from those lips.
4. Valor, humanity, courtesy, justice, and honor, were the characteristics of chivalry.
Note.-On each successive word of the emphatic series, the slide should be made through a wider interval, and with increased force.*
* Several eminent writers on elocution have laid down the rule, that the last member of a commencing series, or, more generally, the penultimate clause of a sentence, should take the Rising Inflection. Thus, honor, in the last example, according to this rule, should receive the Rising Slide, instead of presenting to the ear the climax which exists in the sense; and some very insufficient reasons are assigned why it should be so. I would suggest, however, that a slight pause, after the last emphatic word, prepares the
RULE V.—Emphatic repetition requires the Falling Slide.
EXAMPLES 1. And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven; and said, Abraham, ABRAHAM. And he said, Here am I.
2. O Jerusalem, JERUSALEM, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto you, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!
OF THE DRIFTS OF THE VOICE.
PREPARATORY to the next two sections, we here introduce what Dr. Rush has well designated the “Drifts of the Voice.” In the first chapter of this Manual are enumerated and described all the elements which are supposed to be essential to a perfect elocution. The learner must feel an interest in knowing whether they are limited in their application and use to the emphasis, as described in the last
way for a more melodious cadence than can be produced in the way proposed; and this is believed to be the manner of many of our best speakers.- Who ever hears, in the spirited utterance of any of our inost accomplished speakers, such specimens as occur in the notation of Porter's Analysis? Witness the following, for example.
“What, Tubero, did that naked sword of yours mean, in the battle of Pharsalia ? At whose brèast was its point aimed? What was the meaning of your arms, your spìrit, your eyes, your hands, your ardor of soul?"
“Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strèngth, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbor as thyself.”
The mere presentation of these examples furnishes a sufficient refutation of the principle, as susceptible of general application The exceptions which should be made to it in practice are sufficient to render it entirely nugatory.
section; or whether they can be applied to entire periods, paragraphs, or discourses; and thus give a character to their expression. The answer to this interrogatory is, that some of them are confined to single words, while others may be extended to phrases, and still others to paragraphs, or entire discourses. It is this repetition of the same element, producing a style which runs through and characterizes the utterance of entire passages of discourse, that is called a drift of speech.
We shall here do little more than enumerate the elements which belong to these three classes, leaving it to the application which is to be made in following sections to explain the import of these several drifts, and the circumstances which should determine their employment; as also to furnish the practice necessary to their execution.
The Temporal Drift.-This designation of itself will suggest to the learner no particular rate of utterance. In fact, this is a general term; embracing the Drift of Quantity or Slow Time, and the Drift of Quick Time, together with the Natural Drift of unimpassioned speech. The Time of the voice in any of its modifications may be applied to portions of discourse of any extent.
The Drifts of Radical Stress, of Median Stress, and of Vanishing Stress, can be extended throughout a discourse, in as much as the sentiments which they severally represent are restricted neither to words nor phrases.
The Drift of Pitch. The different degrees of pitch, as well as the different kinds of Stress, may be employed on passages of some length, without any considerable variation.
The Drift of the Semitone, and the Diatonic Drift, only indicate the prevalence of the elements necessary to constitute their respective melodies.