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bined with the Concrete Rise or Fall through a Third or Fifth, or with the Single Waves, either Direct or Inverted.

In the stronger expression of these sentiments, as also in Derision, Scoffing, Mockery, and Execration, the Vanishing Stress, the Aspiration, the Guttural Emphasis and the Tremor may all be combined on the Downward Concrete or the Waves, which may be extended through an Octave. And the effect will be greatly heightened, if, instead of the Equal and Single Waves, the Unequal Double Waves be employed. When however the Aspiration or the Guttural force is given on the Waves, it must be understood to be confined to its last constituent.

EXAMPLES. 1. Satan beheld their plight,

And to his mates thus in derision called :
O friends, why come not on those victors proud ?
Ere while they fierce were coming; and when we,
To entertain them fair with

open

front
And breast, (what could we more ?) propounded terms
Of composition, straight they changed their minds,
Flew off, and into strange vagaries fell,
As they would dance: yet for a dance they seemed
Somewhat extravagant and wild, perhaps
For joy of offered peace; but I suppose,
If our proposals once again were heard,

We should compel them to a quick result.”
2. Gaoler, look to him ;—Tell not me of mercy ;-

This is the fool that lent out money gratis ;-
Gaoler, look to him.

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Mirth, RAILLERY. Mirth and Raillery require Quick Time and Short Quantity, Loudness, and the Concrete Rise of the Second, combined with the Radical Stress.

If these sentiments become excessive, they may raise the voice to the Falsette, either by a Concrete rise of the Octave, or by the Direct Wave of the same interval.—The combination of the Tremor also heightens the effect.

EXAMPLE.
A fool, a fool !—I met a fool i' the forest,
A motley fool, a miserable varlet;
As I do live by food, I met a fool,
Who laid him down, and basked him in the sun,
And railed on lady Fortune in good terms,
In good set terms, and yet a motley fool.
Good morrow, fool, quoth I; no, sir, quoth he,
Call not fool, till heaven hath sent me fortune :
And then he drew a dial from his poke,
And looking on it with lack-lustre eye,
Says, very wisely, it is ten o'clock ;
Thus may we see, quoth he, how the world wags;
'Tis but an hour ago since it was nine,
And after one hour more 'twill be eleven,
And so from hour to hour we ripe and ripe,
And then from hour to hour we rot and rot,
And thereby hangs a tale. When I did hear
The motley fool thus moral on the time,
My lungs began to crow like chanticleer,
That fools should be so deep-contemplative;
And I did laugh, sans intermission
An hour by his dial.-O noble fool!
A worthy fool! motley's the only wear.

Joy, TRIUMPH, &c. Joy and Delight are more dignified in their expression, employing a longer Quantity, the Median Stress, and the Alternate Phrase of Melody.-Rapture, Triumph or Exultation adds to these elements the Tremor.

EXAMPLE.

O my soul's joy!
If after every tempest come such calms,
May the winds blow till they have wakened death!
And let the laboring bark climb hills of seas
Olympus high, and duck again as low
As hell's from heaven! If it were now to die,
'Twere now to be most happy, for I fear
My soul hath her content so absolute,
That not another comfort like to this
Succeeds in unknown fate.

ASTONISHMENT, ADMIRATION, AMAZEMENT. The dignified expression of these sentiments requires Long Quantity, a good degree of Force, and the Emphasis of the Downward Concrete, or of the Equal Direct Wave of the Third or Fifth combined with the Median Stress.

Mirthful Wonder, or Surprise, may require the Downward Octave, or the Equal Single Direct Wave of that interval; and as the utterance becomes more rapid, the Radical or Vanishing Stress is used.

Aspiration may be connected with the simple Downward Slides; though with the Waves it would express scorn, sneer, or contempt.

EXAMPLE.
Sir Richard, what think you? Have you beheld,
Or have you read, or heard ? or could you think?
Or do you almost think, although you see,
That you do see ? Could thought, without this object,
Form such another ? This is the very top,
The height, the crest, or crest unto the crest
Of Murder's arms: This is the bloodiest shame,
The wildest savagery, the vilest stroke,
That ever wall-eyed Wrath, or starving Rage,
Presented to the tears of soft Remorse.

PLAINTIVE EXPRESSION, TENDERNESS.

The elements employed to express pathetic sentiments or tender emotion are few, but strongly marked. They are Softness of voice, Long Quantity, Slow Time and the Semitone, or the Direct and Inverted Waves of that interval, combined with the Median Stress.

The sentiments which require the Chromatic Intonation are various and widely different from each other. The difference however is marked by the language rather than the intonation. Among other sentiments which may be thus expressed are, Awe, Complaint, Contrition, Penitence, Petition, Submission, Supplication, Fondness, Love, Pity, Compassion, Commiseration, Condolence, Mercy, Grief, Lamentation, and Sorrow.

The simple rise and fall of the Semitone, or the Wave of that interval, is the most effective of the elements enumerated above, for the expression of the tender and pathetic sentiments. The choice between the Simple Concrete and the Wave is determined by the degree of Dignity, in the sentiment expressed; and this may be still further enhanced by combining with the other elements the Partial Drift of the Monotone.

Many of the expressions which go under a common name, as Complaint and Supplication, vary essentially at different times in the degree of plaintiveness which they express. When this emotion is wanting, the Simple Concrete and the Wave of the Second are substituted for those of the Semitone; and on the contrary, when this emotion becomes painfully strong, the Tremor and Aspiration are added to the Semitone, on the emphatic words of Long Quantity. Further to heighten the effect, the clauses may terminate with the Rising Slide, or the Inverted Wave of the Semitone; and the Broken Melody may be employed.

In the case of plaintive Exclamation, or whenever Surprise or Positiveness are to be connected with the Chromatic Melody, the Unequal Direct Wave is employed, the first constituent being a Semitone.

EXAMPLES.

1. We have erred and strayed from thy ways, like lost sheep. We have done those things which we ought not to have done, and have left undone those things we ought to have done, and there is no health in us. But thou, O! Lord, have mercy upon us miserable offenders. Spare thou those, O! God, who confess their faults. Restore thou those who are penitent, according to thy promises declared unto mankind in Christ Jesus our Lord. And grant, O! most merciful Father, for his sake, that we may hereafter live a godly, righteous, and sober life, to the glory of thy holy name.

2. Ah, Richard ! with the eyes of heavy mind,

I see thy glory like a shooting star,
Fall to the base earth, from the firmament!
Thy sun sets weeping in the lowly west,
Witnessing stormis to come, wo, and unrest;
Thy friends are fled, to wait upon thy foes,

And crossly to thy good all fortune goes.
3. Seems, madam! nay, it is; I know not seems.

'Tis not alone my inky cloak, good mother,
Nor customary suits of solemn black,
Nor windy suspirations of forced breath ;
No, nor the fruitful river in the

eye,
Nor the dejected 'havior of the visage,
Together with all forms, modes, shows of grief,
That can denote me truly: These indeed seem,
For they are actions that a man might play;
But I have that within, which passeth show;
These but the trappings, and the suits of wo.

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