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the left hand; as may also the attitude of the speaker. Thus, when in earnest gesture, the left foot is projected forward, as it must be, if in such case it is found to be the free foot; or when, in starting back, the right foot has left the other far in advance, it would be improper to use the right hand for the principal gesture Fig. 48. Fig. 49.

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Both hands may be employed at the same time, in earnest appeal, in expressing the ideas of extent or vastness, and often in animated poetic recitation. In such cases, if the persons addressed are precisely in front of the speaker, the gestures of the two hands will correspond, and will be exactly similar, (see Figs. 48, 49 ;) but if the body of the speaker is presented a little obliquely, which is deemed more graceful, then the right hand is usually more elevated or more advanced than the left, (see Figs. 34, 50,)that of the one being called the principal, that of the other the subordinate gesture.

2. Of Gesture as Principal and Subordinate.—When both hands are employed in gesture, as just intimated, the one is usually more advanced or more elevated than the other. Either hand may take the precedence, though this honor is more generally conferred upon the right hand. The hand which performs the principal gesture is called the advanced, and the other the retired hand. The subordinate gesture frequently imitates that of the other hand, and is always in the same direction with it; but is more moderate and reserved. The employment of both hands thus is peculiarly graceful, and is more forcible and expressive than the use of either hand alone. From the part which this subordinate gesture performs, it is not inaptly compared, by Austin, to the accompaniment in music.

3. Of the Accompaniments of Gesture.— The subordinate gesture is one of the accompaniments of the principal. But there are other accompaniments to be attended to. The movements of the lower limbs, of the body, and of the head must all join in harmony with the principal gesture of the hand; otherwise the movement will be but a mere imitation of nature. And even though the body and limbs should move in perfect concert, while the countenance should remain unmoved and unexcited, the entire action would be but that of a well-contrived automaton. With all of these at perfect command, and employed in harmony with the diversified melodies of the voice, nothing can be wanting for the enforcement of either thought or feeling.

4. Of Gesture as Preparatory and Terminating: -Every act of gesture consists of two parts—the preparatory and the terminating movement. The last is that for which the gesture is made; and the former is but the preliminary movement, which of necessity precedes it. The collected state of the hand, for example, belongs exclusively to the preparatory part of gesture. Again, the hand cannot be brought downward in emphatic expression, till it has been elevated. The elevation of the arm and hand, then, is the preparatory part of such a gesture. Though, in one sense, this is entirely a subordinate part of gesture, yet on it depend essentially the force as well as the grace of its termination. It must be executed, neither too early, so as to leave the arm too long suspended; nor too late, so as to make the gesture short and hurried. It should appear easy and natural, be made in curved rather than in straight lines, and should seem to be prompted, as indeed it ought to be, by the rising thought.—The terminating part of most gestures furnishes an example of what is called the stroke of

the gesture.

5. Of the Emphatic Stroke and Time of Gesture.When speaking of the voice in the first part of this work, Emphasis was defined,— The expressive but occasional distinction of syllables, and consequently of the words of which they form a part. It is perfectly obvious, that every mode of giving emphasis by the voice should be susceptible of being accompanied by gesture. Such is the case; but not every form of emphasis can receive enforcement by the same gesture. For example, in those forms of emphasis of which quantity is the chief element, the hand moves in the horizontal curves, or rises towards the zenith; whereas in all the forms in which short quantity prevails, the movement is downward, and in the vertical circles. Even in those forms of emphasis which require long quantity, the accompanying movement varies with the point at which the stress is laid. In the Median emphasis, the gesture may have no abrupt termination ; while in the Vanishing emphasis, the gesture terminates abruptly, though with a full extension of the arm outward or upward; and not, as in the Radical emphasis, with a descent to one of the points designated.

It is to gestures which have an abrupt termination, and particularly to such as accompany the radical stress, that the remarks under this head are devoted. The instrument with which gesture is made is compound—consisting of the upper arm, the fore arm, and the hand; and each of these has an independent motion. When the arm is brought down in gesture, it does not, therefore, fall as though it had only an articulation at the shoulder; but the upper arm first falls into its position, then the fore arm, and then the hand and fingers. This finishes the gesture, and marks its complete termination; and this action of the hand is called the stroke of the gesture. This is susceptible of every

degree of force, according to the velocity with which the hand has moved, and the extent through which it has passed; and should correspond, both as to time and energy, with the vocal emphasis, so that the emphatic distinction given to any syllable by gesture may fall upon the eye at the same point of time with the greatest stress of the voice, and, as regards energy of expression, harmonize with it.

This requires care, as to the preparatory gesture, that it bę not commenced too soon, nor deferred too late ; yet such is the sympathy between the feeling, the vocal expression, and the action, that when once the command of all the elements of expression has been acquired, and freedom of feeling and action has been secured by well-directed practice, there will rarely be any jarring between them : the feeling will find a ready and adequate expression, both in the voice and in the accordant gesture.

6. Of Gesture as Significant and not Significant.— The pointing of the index finger, the placing of the finger on the eye, the laying of the hand on the head or on the breast, woul:l be examples of significant gestures. Gestures may be significant by nature, or may become so by convention.

The other class of gestures though less imposing are more important. Of these, Austin says,—« They differ from the others, because they may be used in any part of an oration, and belong to every character of style and speaking, and are as it were the elements and roots of gesture, which by their combinations produce its whole power of language and expression. These constitute the component parts of every style of delivery, whether tame or vehement, argumentative or diffuse, ardent or indifferent, cold or pathetic.” To this class belong the gestures of which we are chiefly speaking in this section,--all indeed which are recognised in Fig. 25, and still further represented by Figs. 26–40.—More will be said of the significant gestures in the Appendix.

7. Transition of Gesture.— When the hand has once been brought into action in gesture, instead of dropping to the side, and then being brought up again for a similar purpose, it should generally remain in its position till relieved by the other hand, or till it passes into a state of preparation for a succeeding gesture. The term transition may be applied to the passing thus from any one gesture to another-whether from one principal gesture to another of the same hand, or from the gesture of one hand to that of the other. The rules for such transitions have been given. The term is however used in a sense more analogous with the same term as applied to the voice, when it is made to refer to such changes as arise from transitions in the sentiment,-whether they are sudden and abrupt; or more gradual, like those which take place in the regular progress of a discourse. At this point, it need only be remarked, that these last-named transitions of gesture should never be made, except when dictated by such transitions of thought and sentiment as call for corresponding changes in the

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