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great number of words of similar pronunciation. The è and the 7 are likewise often suppressed in the whole class of words beginning with pre and pro, as in predict, prevent, produce, promote, pronounced-prdict, prvent, prduce, prmote. The unaccented ū is also often suppressed, or made to sound like e, in such words as particular, regular, singular, &c.; and on the contrary, the unaccented e and a are as often suppressed, or converted in pronunciation to u, in the final syllable of words ending in ent, ar, ant, ence and ance, as in-government, auricular, inhabitant, evidence, ignorance. Indeed bad habits of articulating the vowels are liable to deform in utterance almost every word and syllable of the language. The effect of the exercise recommended in the different sections of this chapter will be to correct all such errors of articulation. If however after practicing these exercises, the learner shall detect himself in any error of this kind, he should make out a list of such words as he fails to articulate correctly, and practice on them daily, not only till he can utter them, but till he can do it with naturalness and ease.

Many of the combinations of consonant sounds, which occur in our language, are really difficult of utterance, and may be appropriately exhibited here for the express purpose of practice on them. The following list will be found to contain all the difficult combinations that can occur in speech. To many, some of them will seem almost impossible to be uttered; but let such recollect that the difficulty is not produced by us. We select only combinations which actually exist, and which any one is constantly liable to meet with in reading or speaking. Many of these can be rendered easy of utterance only by familiarity with them. At first, they will probably be pronounced by the learner in a stiff, affected, and perhaps awkward manner. Practice however will overcome all the difficulty; and ease and grace may be combined in the utterance with dignity and force. And with most persons this can result only from practice,-- practice, the same that gives ease and grace in the exercise of any of the other physical functions. Natural impediments, or defective organs of speech, are much more rare than is usually supposed.



Bd, bdst.

Or-b'd, pro-b'dst. bl, blst, bld, bldst, blz. trou-ble, trou-blost, trou-bld, trou-blodst,

trou-bles. br.

br-and. bz.

pro-bes. bst.

rob-b'st. dl, dlst, did, dust, dlz. han-dle, han-dl'st, han-drd, han-dl'dst, han

dles. dn, dnst, dnd, dndst, har-den, har-d'n'st, har-d'n'd, har-d'n'dst, dnz.

har-dens. dr.

dr-ove. dz.

dee-ds. dst.

di-dst. dth, dlhs.

brea-dth, brea-dths. gd, gdst.

brag-g'd, brag-g'dst. gl, glst, gld, gldst, gl-ow, man-glé, man-gl'st, man-gld, manglz.

gl'dst, man-gles. gr.

grow. gz.


wag-g'st. jd.



* For the basis of this Table the author is indebted to Barber's Grammar of Elocution. It is here corrected and enlarged.


I, Tod, loz.

bu-lb, bu-lb'd, bu-los. Id, Idz, Idst.

ho-ld, ho-lds, ho-ldst. lj, lid.

bu-lge, bu-lg'd. lm, Imd, lmz.

whe-lm, whe-Im'd, whe-Ims. In.

fa-il' n. lo, lud, luz.

she-lve, she-l'd, she-lves. Iz.

ba-lls. lk, lks, Ikt,"Ikts. si-lk, si-lks, mu-lct, mu-lcts. Ip, Ipt, lps, lpst. help, he-lp'd, he-los, he-lp'st. It, lts, ltst.

ha-lt, ha-lts, ha-lt’st. y, yfs, fl, ifth, ths. gu-lf, gu-ifs, de-fl, twe-fth, twelfths. Is, ist.

fa-lse, fa-ll st. Ith, Iths.

hea-lth, hea-lths. Ich, Icht.

fi-lch, fi-lch'd. md., mdst.

ento-mb'd, ento-mb'dst.

to-mbs. mp, mps, mpt, mpts. i-mp, i-mps, atte-mpl, atte-mpts. mf, mfs.

ny-mph, ny-mphe. mst.

ento-mb'st. nd, ndz, ndst.

80-nd, se-nds, se-nd'st. nj, njd.

ra-nge, ranged.

fi-ns. ngd, ngdst, ngz, ngth, ha-ng'd, ha-ng'dol, ha-ngs, stre-ngth, ngths.

stre-ngths. nk, nkt, nks, nkst. wi-nk, wi-nk'd, wi-nks, wi-nk'st. nt, nts, ntst.

wa-nt, wa-nts, wa-nt'st.

wi-nce, wi-nc'd. nth, nths.

hyaci-nth, hyaci-nths. nch, ncht.

fli-nch, fli-nch'd. rb, rbst, rbd, rbdst, rbz, ba-rb, ba-rbost, ba-rb’d, ba-rb’dst, ba-rbs. rd, rdst, rdz.

hea-rd, heardst, ba-rds. rg, rgz.

bu-rgh, bu-rghs. rj, rjd.

U-rge, u-rg'd. rl, rlst, rld, rldst, rlz. hu-rl, hurlst, hu-rld, ha-rldst, hurls. rm, rmst, rmd, rmdst, warm, warm'st, wa-rmd, wa-rm'dst, rmz, rmth.

warms, wa-rmth. rn, rnst, and, rndst, bu-rn, bu-rn'st, bu-rn'd, bu-rn'dst, bu-rnt, rnt, rnz,



ns, nst.


go, rust, rod, rodst, roz. cu-rve, cu-ru'st, cu-ru'd, cu-rv'dst, cu-rves. TZ.

wa-rs. rk, rks, rkst, rkt, rktst. ha-rk, ha-rks, ha-rk'st, ha-rk'd, ha-rk'dst. mp, rps, rpst, rpt, -ptst. ha-rp, ha-rps, ha-rp'st, harpid, ha-rp'dst. rt, rts, rtst.

hu-rt, hu-rts, hu-rt'st. rf, rft, rfs.

tu-rf, tu-rf'd, tu-rfs. rs, rst, rsts.

hea-rse, bu-rst, bu-rsts. rth, rths,

hea-rth, hea-rths. Tsh.

ha-rsh. rch, rcht.

sea-rch, sea-rch'd. vd, odst.

li-v'd, li-v'dst. vl, vlst, vld, oldst, viz. dri-v'l, dri-o'l'st, dri-v'ld, dri-v'ldst, dri-v'ls. on, vnz, vnth, vnths. hea-v'n, hea-v'ns, ele-v'nth, ele-v'nths.

li-ves. vst.

li-v'st. zd.

ama-z'd. zl, zlst, zld, zldst, zlz. muz-zle, muz-zlst, muz-zld, muz-zldst,

muz-zles. zm, zmz.

spa-sm, spa-sms. zn, znst, znd, zndst, pri-son, impri-son'st, impri-son'd, impri

son'dst, pri-sons. THd, THz, THst. wrea-th’d, wrea-ths, wrea-th'st. kl, klst, kld, kldst, klz. truc-kle, truc-klost, truc-kld, truc-kl'dst,

truc-kles. kn, knst, knd, kndst, blac-ken, blac-ken’st, blac-ken'd, blacknz.

ken'dst, blac-kens. kor.

cr-oney. kt, kts, ktst.

a-ct, a-cts, li-k’dst. ks, kst, ksts, ksth, ksths. ra-cks, te-xt, te-xts, si-xth, si-aths. pl, plst, pld, pldst, plz. pl-uck, rip-ple, rip-pl'ol, rip-pl'd, rip-pl'dst,

rip-ples. pr.

pr-ay. pt, pts, ptst.

cry-pt, cry-pts, slo-ptst. ps, pst.

cli-ps, clip-p'st. pth, pths.

de-pth, de-pthis. tl, tlst, tld, tldst, tlz. set-tle, set-tl'st, set-tld, set-tldst, set-tles. đ, tp.

tr-ust, tw-ist. ts, tst, tth, tths.

combats, comba-ts't, eigh-th, eigh-ths.


A, fist, fld, fldst, Allz. A-ame, tri-fle, tri-ft'st, tri-fl'd, tri-fl'dst, tri-fles.

fr-ame. ft, fts, ftst.

wa-ft, wa-fts, wa-ftst. fs, fot.

lau-ghs, lau-gh'st. fth, fths,

fi-fth, fi-fths. sl, slst, sld, sldst, slz. sl-ay, ne-stle, ne-stl'st, ne-stId, ne-stldst,'


sm-oke. sn, enz.

sn-ail, ba-sin, ba-sins. sk, skt, sks, skst, skr. sk-ip, ma-sk, ma-sk'd, ma-sks, ma-skost, scr-ew. sp, spt, sps, spr, spl. 8p-ot, ra-sp, ra-sp'd, ra-sps, spr-ing, spl-ash. st, sts, str.

st-ay, bu-st, bu-sts, str-eet. thm, thmz, thr, tht, ths. logari-thm, logari-thms, thr-ough, smi-th'd,

you-ths. shr, sht, shtst.

shr-ink, pu-sh'd, pu-sh'dst. cht,


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The following sentences, in most of which some of these combinations occur, and all of which present some difficulties to the untutored organs of speech, may be practiced to advantage. He whose articulation is already perfect will find little occasion to delay on them: he who finds any difficulty should not, till this is removed, pass to another section.

1. The evening was fine, and the full orbed moon shone

with uncommon splendor. 2. And oft false sounds sunk near him.

3. ?}

Who ever imagined such a notion to exist ? 4. The man of talents struggles through difficulties severe. 5. The youth hates study. 6. It was the act of all the acts of government the most


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