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If this line be pronounced in a similar manner, it will exhibit the inverted equal wave of a second on the syllables "Ligh,” “throne,” and “roy."

“ I said he was my friend.”

Let this sentence be slowly uttered, with long quantity upon “my,” accompanied with such an emphasis as to contrast it with your—friend, and the word “my” will show the direct equal wave of a third.

“Ah! is he your friend, then?”

Let this last sentence be uttered as a reply to the preceding, and with an air of surprise, though with long quantity and a natural emphasis upon “your,” and it will display the inverted equal wave of a third.

“Yes, I said he was my friend."

If this sentence be reiterated with a strong positive emphasis upon “my," and with extended quantity, it will exhibit the direct equal wave of a fifth.

“ Is he solely your friend?”

By increasing the emphasis of surprise, making the interrogation more piercing, and extending the quantity of the word “your” in this sentence, the inverted equal wave of the fifth will be heard.

If, in the sentence, “I said he was my friend,” the word “my” be uttered with a strongly taunting and at the same time positive expression, that word will show the direct unequal wave.

If, in the sentence, “Is he your friend?” the word “your” be uttered with a strong expression of scorn and interrogation, it will exhibit the inverted unequal wave.

When these waves have once become familiar to the ear, the voice may be trained to their execution, by combining them with the long vowel elements, or with any


the combinations which admit of protracted quantity. The uses of these functions of the voice will be pointed out in the sections which treat of Emphasis and Expression, in Chapter II.*



By Force of Voice, we mean simply strength or power of voice. The lion has more force of voice than the dog. The sound of the bugle or the organ has more force than the flute. Great force of voice is not always needed; but

* NOTE TO THE TEACHER.The learner should, at this point, be subjected to something like the following system of exercise. Let some one of the elements, say a, be selected, or some word susceptible of long quantity, and the learner be required, without the aid of the teacher's voice, to pronounce it

1st. With the Radical (Median or Vanishing) stress. 2nd. On a high (or low) pitch. 3rd. With the Falling (or Rising] Slide of the Second, (Third, Fifth, or Eighth.]

4th. On the Equal Direct [or Inverted] Wave of the Second, [Third, or Fifth.] And let this exercise be continued on these simple functions of the voice, at pleasure.

Then let him be required to combine such of these functions as arė susceptible of combination: аs, for example, to pronounce the designated element

1st. With Radical Stress, and on the Low Pitch. 2nd. With the Radical Stress, and with the Falling Slide of a Third.

3rd. With the Median Stress, and in the Equal Inverted Wave of a Third.

4th. With the Vanishing Stress, and the Rising Slide of a Fifth.

5th. With Long Quantity, and on the Direct Wave of the Semitone, &c.

This exercise may likewise be advantageously continued, till the learner has acquired a facility-not in imitating, but in executing for himself, under the teacher's direction, all these vocal functions, both singly and in combination.

to the speaker it is sometimes of infinite importance, while it cannot interfere with any other vocal function. To him who is called to address large assemblies, or to speak in the open air, a powerful voice gives the double advantage of making himself distinctly heard, and of exhibiting what is always strongly demanded by a popular audience-evidence of earnestness and sincerity. Its acquisition, then, should be among the first objects of him who would prepare for the practice of the orator's art. The capabilities of the human voice, in point of power, are rarely developed, for the simple reason that they can be brought out only by education; and education, in any proper sense of the term, is here rarely applied. The hand is trained to penmanship, and even the voice is sometimes slightly disciplined in regard to some of its functions, by the teacher of music; but who now thinks of giving the voice a full system of training for the high and responsible duties connected with oratory? Had it been thus in Greece, she would have had no Demosthenes: had it been thus in Rome, Cicero would have lived for nought. Unless perchance we should except a very few of those trained for the stage, the practical speaker is not now to be found, who has been trained as was either of these men whose oratorical powers have made them immortal.

If I mistake not, the learner has already thought that our exercises and suggestions for practice were becoming too numerous and too tedious. But there is no “ royal road” to the orator's proud elevation. We suggest the system of elementary practice, because we know of no other in which the future orator can learn to execute the high principles of his art. It is a very different thing to judge of a good piece of workmanship in the handicraft arts, from what it is to execute such a piece. There is the same difference between the mere theoretical and the practical orator ;between him who has learned the principles of good speaking by study and by listening to lectures, and him who has been instructed on such a system as is here taught.

In no respect is the voice more capable of improvement than in regard to its force; and this may be combined with long or with short quantity, with all the kinds of stress, with every variety of pitch, and with all the slides and waves of the voice. Thus for the purpose of training this function of the voice, the learner may repeat all or any of the lessons suggested for practice in the preceding sections, only with greater fulness and energy. But while a careless and transient recurrence to these lessons will be of little service in developing the full powers of the voice, an injudicious exercise on them may produce permanent injury. An hour spent in vociferating the elements or syllabic combinations, and that perhaps on an improper pitch, or without due regard to the proper radical and vanishing movements of the voice, might with subsequent exposure of itself produce the results we are preparing to guard the future speaker against. These exercises, when properly conducted, have a twofold operation : first, they teach how the various functions of the voice can be employed the most successfully, and with the greatest ease; and secondly, they habituate the voice to the exercise of its powers. That the greatest good however may result from the training here proposed, the following rules ought to be observed.

1. Let the exercise be repeated daily, or perhaps twice . each day, if it is found the voice will bear it. 2. Let not the exercise at first be long continued, not

more than ten or fifteen minutes,-nor till any degree of hoarseness is produced.

3. Let not the voice at first be exercised to the full extent of its powers; nor the exercise be long continued, either on the highest or the lowest pitch of the voice.

4. Special care should be used to guard against harshness or hoarseness of voice in these exercises. The voice should be formed low down in the throat, the tongue being retracted and depressed, and the mouth sufficiently open to emit a smooth volume of sound.

5. The articulation of every element employed in the exercise should be perfect. Austin in his Chironomia says, in regard to the articulation of words, “ They are not to be hurried over; nor precipitated syllable over syllable; nor as it were melted together into a mass of confusion. They should be neither abridged nor prolonged; nor swallowed, nor forced; they should not be trailed, nor drawled, nor let to slip out carelessly, so as to drop unfinished. They are to be delivered out from the lips as beautiful coins newly issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of due weight.” But the articulation of the words depends on the articulation of the elements which compose them.

6. When in these exercises force is connected with long quantity, whether radical or median stress is employed, special care should be given to the utterance of the vanish. The gentle and gradual decline of sound, as heard in the finely executed vanish, delights the ear scarcely less than the higher graces attending musical execution.

7. At first, these exercises should be remitted during a period of feeble health, or during the hoarseness attendant

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