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same time that it makes the learner familiar with their practical uses.

The art of engraving was little understood by the ancients. In modern works on elocution much advantage has been taken of the improvements in this art; and in regard to gesture, abundant illustrations have been furnished, which addressing the eye, make a stronger as well as a more definite impression on the mind than could well be made by words. The Chironomia, in particular, contains a very full set of excellent illustrations of the principles of gesture, which most of the later writers on elocution have very judiciously used, instead of attempting to furnish new and inferior drawings. From these I have selected such as would fully answer my purpose; but have added whatever I judged necessary to a complete set of illustrations for my work.*

While examples have been selected for illustrating all the principles of vocal modulation and expression, the book has not been encumbered with extracts from other authors merely for practice. This part of the business has been well done by others; and there are books enough before the public containing selections, both for reading and speaking. Perhaps a book of selections might be made better suited to improve the higher powers of elocution than any we now have; it was not, however, any part of the object of this Manual to supply such defect. Without any

such matter, the pages of my book have multiplied beyond what was contemplated when it was undertaken,—and that, though brevity has been most assiduously studied.

If the objects proposed in this Manual have been accomplished, the work now submitted to the public may be studied with advantage by every class of public speakers; and the practice it suggests is especially adapted to train the future speaker for his responsible work. But many of the principles of reading and speaking are the same; so that he, also, who would become a good reader must study some such work as this, to render him familiar with these principles. Aside, however, from all these considerations, there are reasons why elocution should be studied. The natural sciences are taught in all our schools, that those who study them

* The Diagrams and Figures which illustrate the subject of this Manual have been engraved by J. Spittall, of Philadelphia. Most of them have also been drawn by him; though several of the Figures have been drawn by C. Burton, of Carlisle, Pa.

may be able to classify and give names to the various objects of nature. Even the young lady studies Botany and the Geography of the heavens, that she may be able to name the plants and the stars. And is it a matter of no interest to her to be able to speak intelligibly of the excellences and defects of those whom from time to time she hears speak ?to give names to the qualities of the voice and of the action which they employ? It is not, perhaps, too much to say, that the time will come, when the power to criticise a speech shall be considered as essential to the scholar as is now the ability to criticise a written composition-when Elocution and Rhetoric shall be studied as constituting sister departments, even in a common English education. Then would every professed speaker cultivate his natural powers, so that a failure in the management of his voice or in gesture would be as rare as such a failure now is among professed singers or performers on musical instruments. On the same principle that men can learn to sing, or to handle the bow, or touch the keys of an instrument for the production of harmonious sounds, they can learn to manage the voice in speaking, or the arms and hands in gesture.

DICKINSON COLLEGE, November, 1844.




Table IV. Combinations of the Tonic Conso.

nants with the Long Vowels....


Table V. Combinations of the Atonics with

the Long Vowels......


Table VI. Combinations of the Long Vowels

with the Tonic Consonants


Table VII. Combinations of the Long Vowels

with the Atonics......


Table VIII. Combinations of the Short Vow.

els with the Tonic Consonants...


Median Stress .


Vanishing Stress



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