## Mechanical metallurgy |

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Page 440

An equation which gives better fit than Andrade's equation, although it has been

tested on a limited number of materials, was proposed by Garofalo.1 e = e0 + e,(l

- e"") + k,t (13-9) where e0= the instantaneous strain on loading e,= the limit for

transient

the steady-state

13-4 require further explanation. It is generally considered in this country that the

...

An equation which gives better fit than Andrade's equation, although it has been

tested on a limited number of materials, was proposed by Garofalo.1 e = e0 + e,(l

- e"") + k,t (13-9) where e0= the instantaneous strain on loading e,= the limit for

transient

**creep**r= the ratio of transient**creep**rate to the transient**creep**strain £,=the steady-state

**creep**rate The various stages of the**creep**curve shown in Fig.13-4 require further explanation. It is generally considered in this country that the

...

Page 459

13-12 PRESENTATION OF ENGINEERING

progress has been made on the theory of

advanced to the point where

reliably from theoretical models. For design purposes it is essential that decisions

be based on reliable experimental data. In reporting high-temperature strength

data it is common practice to speak of

strength is ...

13-12 PRESENTATION OF ENGINEERING

**CREEP**DATA Although muchprogress has been made on the theory of

**creep**, our understanding has notadvanced to the point where

**creep**and stress-rupture behavior can be predictedreliably from theoretical models. For design purposes it is essential that decisions

be based on reliable experimental data. In reporting high-temperature strength

data it is common practice to speak of

**creep**strength or rupture strength.**Creep**strength is ...

Page 466

Correlation has been obtained between uniaxial

walled tubes under internal pressure, and tubes stressed in biaxial tension.1 13-

15

cannot be considered to arise from pure

interaction between the two damage processes.2 The main approaches that

have been suggested for design under conditions of

: (1) linear damage ...

Correlation has been obtained between uniaxial

**creep**tests,**creep**of thick-walled tubes under internal pressure, and tubes stressed in biaxial tension.1 13-

15

**CREEP**-FATIGUE INTERACTION Most deformation at elevated temperaturecannot be considered to arise from pure

**creep**or pure fatigue but from aninteraction between the two damage processes.2 The main approaches that

have been suggested for design under conditions of

**creep**-fatigue interaction are: (1) linear damage ...

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### Contents

Stress and Strain Relationships for Elastic Behavior | 18 |

from Elastic Strains 213 Strain Energy 214 Anisotropy | 46 |

Metallurgical Fundamentals | 101 |

Copyright | |

15 other sections not shown

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### Common terms and phrases

alloy angle annealed ASTM atoms axes axis behavior billet brittle fracture Burgers vector cold-worked components compression constant crack creep cycles decrease determined diameter direction dislocation line ductile edge dislocation elastic elongation embrittlement energy engineering equation extrusion factor failure fatigue limit fibers Figure flow curve flow stress force forging friction given grain boundaries hot-working hydrostatic increase indentation lattice length load machining martensite material matrix maximum measured mechanical metallurgical Metals Park modulus necking notch occurs particles percent plane strain plane-strain plastic deformation plastic strain pressure produce properties ratio recrystallization reduction region residual stresses rolling screw dislocation shear stress sheet shown in Fig slip plane slip systems Society for Metals specimen steel strain hardening strain rate stress-strain curve structure surface temperature tensile strength tensile stress tension test tensor thickness tool torsion Trans usually velocity workpiece yield strength yield stress