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was to contend on a far more ample field. His refutation of the Icon Basilikè had been confined nearly within the pale of his own country; but the powers of his mind were now to be exhibited to Europe, and the whole circle of the civilized and christian community was to witness his triumph or his defeat. Charles, the son of the deceased monarch, eager to blend his own with the

general cause of kings and desirous, perhaps, of evincing by the same act the fervour of his filial piety, determined on engaging the abilities of some great literary character to urge his appeal to the world against the victorious enemies of his house; and, for the accomplishment of his purpose, the voice of fame immediately directed his attention to Salmasius, at that time an honorary professor in the university of Leyden.

Claudius Salmasius, or 'Claude de Saumaise, was of an honourable, or, as it has been termed, a noble family seated near the town of Semur in the old province of : La Bourgogne, of the parliament of which his father was a member. From his mother he

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f The orthography of this celebrated scholar's name fluctuates between “ Saumaise,” and “ Soumaize." By his friend Sarraud it is written in the former mode; and by Vorstius in his Eloge funèbre in the latter.

& Now the department de Saone et Loire,

disgust us with their naked deformity in the pages of the Leyden professor, have been withdrawn from our detestation under an embroidered and sparkling veil by the hand of the British politician. When Salmasius calls upon the monarchs, and, indeed, on all the well instituted republics, or, in other words, the regular governments of Europe to extirpate the fanatic and the parricide English,—the pests and the monsters of Britain, we must necessarily be reminded of Mr. Burke's crusading zeal against the revolutionists of France; and be persuaded that he only blows the trumpet bequeathed to him by the antagonist of Milton, and sullied with the venal breath which was once purchased by Charles. Unquestionable resemblance is to be discovered in “ the Royal

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reipublicæ. Atqui salus reipublicæ semper postulat, ut data à populo principi potestas numquam ad populum revertatur, qui ita eam deponit, ut principem semel illa donatum non privare possit in posterum dato imperio. Quippe cum ad salutem populi reperta sint omnia genera gubernationis quibus respublica constituitur et administratur, boni publici maxime interest, ut potestas à populo regi semel concessa et donata, numquam revocetur.

Nisi enim hoc esset, et si pro lege id observaretur, ut quotiescunque populo placuisset, imperium regi, quem elegisset, ablatum ad populum rediret, nulla pax umquam firma in republica sperari posset, sed ad singula inomenta quies ejus turbaretur, omnia seditionibus et factionibus arderent, fomítibus subinde in faces ad totius status conflagrationem suppeditandis," Def. Reg, p. 202.


Defence” to those pieces of Mr. Burke's . which respect the French revolution; and if the former were to be translated (but who would submit to so ungrateful a labour?) the English reader would be less struck with the novelty of the latter; and more disposed to assent to what was asserted by the wise man more than three thousand years ago, that “ there is no new thing under the sun.” On the causes of this obvious likeness, I will not presume to offer an opinion. Similar thoughts might be suggested by similar subjects, and the same passions, however excited, might naturally rush into the same channel of intemperate expression ; or, the expatiating mind of Mr. Burke might range even the moors of Salmasius to batten on their coarse produce, and, finding them replenished with bitter springs, might be induced to draw from them to feed the luxuriancy of his invective. '

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For the amusement of the curious reader, I will transcribe

passages from Salmasius's work, to prove the resemblance which I have asserted; and at the same time to show that Milton's severity did not exceed the provocation.

P.5. “ Hac ratione quod in Angliâ factum facinus cum hor. rore accepimus, quia exemplo caret, tanto minus ignoscendum, magisque adeo execrandum, curandumque enixius ne hoc ipso tempore penetret ad plures et ne pro exemplo sit perniciem

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Deus, ne unquam siveris, aliter in animum (5 pe

gentium : induxeritis, si in bello fortes, in pace turpes 1 animi meritis, qui manifestum sensistis numen vobis

tam propitium, hostibus tam grave, neque cio inclrtojis exemplo tam insigni et memorando ante

oculos posito, Deum vereri, et justitiam colere didiceritis; quod ad me attinet, concedam sanè et fatebor, neque enim potero negare, ea omnia, quæ nunc maledici et mendaces de vobis pessimè aut loquuntur aut sentiunt, vera esse: vosque multò ira

tiorem brevi tempore experturi estis Deum, qua quàm aut infensum inimici vestri, aut vos

benignum et faventem et paternum, præ cæteris omnibus terrarum orbis gentibus hodiernis, experti estis."

“ So far, with God's assistance, have I accomplished my original purpose of defending, both at home and abroad, the proud achievements of my countrymen against the insane and malignant fury of a frantic sophist; and of vindicating, (as the enemy, not of kings but of tyrants) the general rights of the subject from the unjust despotism of the prince. Nor have I consciously left unanswered a single argument, instance, or evidence, adduced by my antagonist, which

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9 P. W. vol. v. 194.

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